African Literature

In: Novels

Submitted By zrhoussam
Words 8721
Pages 35
erian novelJournal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 4, 2011

A Study on Gender Consciousness in Nigerian Autobiographical Narratives and Power of the Interview
Ogunyemi, Christopher Babatunde Department of English, College of Humanities, Joseph Ayo Babalola University PMB 5006 Ilesa 233001 Osun State, Nigeria. Akindutire, Isaac Olusola Department of Physical and Health Education, Faculty of Education University of Ado Ekiti Ado Ekiti. Ekiti State, Nigeria Adelakun, Ojo Johnson Department of Economics, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, PMB 5006 Ilesa 233001, Osun State, Nigeria Abstract The study explores some self-created metaphors in male autobiographical writings in Nigeria. It visualizes the negation of female gender in art. The paper investigates the dichotomy of language, the use of irony and situational metaphors to displace conventional ones; it blends theories with critical evaluation of discourse. The research uses empirical methods in solving hypothetical questions with the use of extensive and relatively unstructured interviews. It examines the interviews of twenty five people independently, these people include: University lecturers, students, administrative and technical staff. The work analyzes concurrently their interview testimonies to search for congruence. Data analysis begins with a detailed microanalysis in which emergent concepts were defined and then followed by a more refined, focused analysis of broader conceptual categories and premises. By first classifying specific aspects of interview testimonies and later exploring the interrelationships between concepts and examining the overarching patterns and themes, an inductive, grounded theory approach to the study of autobiographical narratives and gender…...

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...his argument towards Captain Anthony being wrong for punishing Hester may not be entirely correct, he proves to us that no matter what he stands by his beliefs. This context proves to readers that not matter what the issue a consequence will always be in play and for many slaves during this time such like Douglass and Aunt Hester, the consequence they received was no human could ever mentally, physically, or emotionally forget. From this context Douglass proved to learn from someone else’s mistakes and be a better person because of it. Proving this Douglass was a man with so little at the beginning and ended up with so much more than many African American man could ever dream of during this time. Work Cited Douglass, Frederick. "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave." 2009. The Heath Anthology of American Literature. 6th ed. Vol. B. Boston, MA [u.a.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publ., 2009. 2047-048. Print....

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The Correlation Between Reoccurring Themes in African American Literature

...African American literature is surprising, captivating, and spirited. Once you start reading a story it is easy to get caught up in the tale being told. The descriptive nature of the works makes it easy to relate to them. Throughout my readings thus far in the class I have noticed some common themes that reoccur in many of the stories and poems. Of course slavery was a very common topic but there were others such as inequality between the races and sexes, injustice and resentment, the black identity, and a strong faith and religion. Even though the words can be separated in the end they all come back together. There were many narratives written by fugitive slaves before the Civil War and by former slaves in the postbellum era. These narratives document slave life from the perspective of first-hand experience. The stories they tell are dark and ugly. The authors like Douglas and Jacobs reveal the struggles, sorrows, aspirations, and triumphs of slaves in absorbingly personal story-telling. Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl was the first autobiography by a formerly enslaved African American woman. In it she describes her experience of the sexual exploitation that made slavery especially oppressive for black women. She also recounts her life in slavery in the context of family relationships with her escape and her struggle to free her children. Fredrick Douglas who wrote Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglas, an American Slave, Written by......

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African Literature as a Form of Protest

..."protest literature" is obviously fluid. Deconstructionists might argue that all literary writing is ultimately a form of protest. Social and historical critics might argue that literary protests must contain a specific political aim, such as changing a law. A Marxist critic might argue that literary protest should disturb the social order in terms of the relationship between social classes. A feminist critic might argue that protest does or does not promote a gender bias. A psychologist might see literary protest as a manifestation of the subconscious. A traditional literary critic might argue the moral relationship between aesthetics and the political message of protest literature. In African Literature culture and experience rather than language becomes the essence of literature. Subalternism is clearly evident in African writing as pattern of “slave narrative” writing is seen. The ‘other’ or the colony is mostly representational. The informative and representative function is seen in Leopold Sedar Senghor’s writing as it shows that Africans share certain distinctive and innate characteristics, values and aesthetics. In the poem ‘New York’, Senghor argues that the black community of Harlem should ‘Listen to the far beating of your nocturnal heart, rhythm/ and blood of the drum’ and ‘let the black blood flow into/ your blood’. The word nocturnal is interesting because it refers to the image of night. By using the imagery of night, Senghor is asserting that one’s African......

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... Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 What is Theory? 1 What is Literature and Does it Matter? 18 Literature and Cultural Studies 42 55 Language, Meaning, and Interpretation Rhetoric, Poetics, and Poetry Narrative 82 94 69 Performative Language Identity, Identification, and the Subject 108 Appendix: Theoretical Schools and Movements 121 References 133 139 Further Reading Index 145 Chapter 1 What is theory? In literary and cultural studies these days there is a lot of talk about theory – not theory of literature, mind you; just plain ‘theory’. To anyone outside the field, this usage must seem very odd. ‘Theory of what?’ you want to ask. It’s surprisingly hard to say. It is not the theory of anything in particular, nor a comprehensive theory of things in general. Sometimes theory seems less an account of anything than an activity – something you do or don’t do. You can be involved with theory; you can teach or study theory; you can hate theory or be afraid of it. None of this, though, helps much to understand what theory is. ‘Theory’, we are told, has radically changed the nature of literary studies, but people who say this do not mean literary theory, the systematic account of the nature of literature and of the methods for analysing it. When people complain that there is too much theory in literary studies these days, they don’t mean too much systematic reflection on the nature of literature or debate about the distinctive qualities of literary language,......

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Self Identity and Self Esteem in African American Children's Literature

...The formation of self-identity is a process each of us must go through on our journey to adulthood. The development of a system by which to lead our adult lives is difficult for all children, but especially for African American children. In addition to defining their personal character, they must define themselves in terms of their culture and nationality – African American and American. One of the ways in which black children create their self-identity is through the illustrations they see in the literature they are exposed to. We look to African American children’s books to help promote self-esteem, cultural identity, and pride for African American children. As books are read to them, children concentrate on the images, and become subject to the impressions these images create. Children’s books that are authentic to African American culture, physicality and intelligence are few and far between. With consideration to our theme, “Black Literary Contemplations on Thomas Jefferson and Western Enlightenment Ideologies of Race and Humanity” and Thomas Jefferson’s Query XIV, it is my belief that the images in children’s literature are important to development of self- identity and esteem in African American children. In Query XIV, in his comparison of whites and blacks, Thomas Jefferson commented on the beauty of whites and blacks, and critiqued blacks because of their “immovable veil of black” and lack of flowing hair. He then stated that black men favored white women over......

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...February 2015 African Americans and the word Nigger African Americans are God’s greatest creation. God said himself that he gives his toughest battles to his strongest soldiers. According to the short film “War for your Soul” this nation needed the strength, wisdom and abilities of African Americans to build the America we have today. The most powerful nation in the world. See what people fail to realize is that America was built on the backs of African Americans. Most of America is founded and created by African Americans but, it was taken away from them by the white people. Now white people are considered to be the founders and rulers of this land when truly the African Americans were the first Queens and Kings. The whites stripped African Americans from everything they built and owned. The Master of Darkness from “War on your Soul” claims he even tore their families apart by separating their children and selling them to different slave owners. Changed the name of African Americans to degrade and used racial slurs like calling them the word “Nigger.” A nigger is below everyone on the face of the planet close to being a dog says Master of Darkness from “War on your soul.” These tactics were used to break the spirits of African American slaves so they would feel belittled and worthless. African Americans could always count on the mercy of God. To withstand the pressures of time. God carried them through the decades of the 30s, 40s, and 50s helping African Americans......

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African Literature

...CHAPTER ONE METHODOLOGY, THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter sets out to examine the methods used in this study, the importance of methodology in research and it also, examines the types of theories necessary for the study. METHODOLOGY This refers to the theoretical approach(es) employed in the work. It is the systematic study method that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline. Methodology here refers to both methods of data collection and method of data analyses. Field work is the very first step to come up with this work. The method use in collecting data in this study are based on interviews and personal participation in the performance which serves as primary order to collect data, the researcher acted as part of the audience meanwhile, the performance was recorded without the performers knowledge because it would have been difficult for materials to be collected through other methods such as dialogue, for example. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Theoretical framework refers to the concept that are related to the research topic to determine the statistical relationship the paper will measure. The approach that will suit this topic is the sociological approach. In the sociology of literature, Diana Laurenson and Swing Wood argue that: Essentially the scientific objective study of man, society, the study of social processes, seek to answer the question of how society is possible, how it works, why it persists. Through a rigorous...

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...Comparative Literature Paper By Jamie Earlywine The two pieces of literature I chose to compare are “Oedipus Rex” by Sophocles and “A Raisin in the Sun” by Lorraine Hansberry. These two pieces of literature were written in two different time periods. One was written in ancient Greece while the other was written in the 1950’s. These two pieces of literature do have many differences but they also have some similarities. Let’s take a brief look at each of these and then we will compare and contrast the two pieces. “Oedipus Rex” revolves around a nobleman, Oedipus, who leaves his city when a prophecy is revealed to him that says he will kill his father and marry his mother. He travels to the Thebes to escape his fate. On the outskirts of the city, he meets and quarrels with a group of riders, all of whom he kills. When he finally arrives in Thebes, he finds that the Sphinx is tormenting the people. The Sphinx refuses to leave the city unless someone answers his riddle. King Laius has been killed, and the land is without a monarch. Oedipus takes on the challenge, answers his riddle, and becomes King of Thebes. He also marries Jocasta, the widow of Laius.The play is set many years later. A plague has descended on the land, so Oedipus summons the blind prophet, Tiresias (who brings dire warnings). Through a number of conversations, Oedipus discovers that killed on the road was none other than the king. Oedipus has more of a claim to the throne of......

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The African Literature

...****Analyzing Jealousy In Othello English Literature Essay**** Shakespeare’s play of Othello is largely driven by a grand love story, and filled with jealousy. Through the juxtaposition of Othello’s credulous nature and Iago’s pernicious villainy, the image of jealousy is truly personified as an all-consuming “green-eyed monster”. Because of this venomous nature of the beast of jealousy, the events of the play manage to unfold in Iago’s lustful authority, which bring down the eponymous character to his tragic downfall. In human psychology today, the modern definition of jealousy remains relatively unchanged from Shakespeare’s time, albeit being expressed in more modern scientific terms. It is defined as “a complex of thoughts, feelings, and actions which follow threats to self-esteem and/or threats to the existence or quality of the relationship ... generated by the perception of a real or potential attraction between one's partner and a (perhaps imaginary) rival." (White, 1981, p. 24). In scenes of jealousy, there are typically a triad of people involved: a jealous and threatened individual, a partner of the opposite gender, and his/her third party rival. In the case of Othello, there are certainly three important people involved at the beginning: Iago being the jealous individual, Desdemona being the partner, and Othello being the third party rival. Iago definitely feels threatened by Othello’s dominance over him, both in his military rank and his......

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...African Ethics A hateful misconception of African Culture ethics and thought is that it is fundamentally primitive, unsystematic, unsophisticated, and lacking rigid philosophical analysis. An additional stereotype in African thought is it cannot have a real system of ethics due to the behavior dictated by local customs. To label African ethics in this way forms a huge disregard to the rich African indigenous heritage and traditional ethos. The African ethos are based upon tradition, authority, and well-being of their communities. Just currently living in one place is not considered an African community. An African community consists of those who are living and have lived and dies, known as ancestors. African ethics is very complex considering that there is fifty-three nations and almost twelve hundred diverse groups. This leads to difficulties regarding generalizing anything as African perspectives or thought. African culture is diverse and detailed in areas such as polygamy, identity, authority, customs, morality, and religion. In African ethics, behavior is dictated by local customs. This brings confusion to people between customs and morality. Customs are like social rules, they are either explicit or implicit, social rules reflect values. Not all social values have moral rules behind them. For example a social values in African cultures would be a beautiful speech, which is logical, but it is not considered immoral if one is to lack in value. When it comes to......

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...Beso, Luiz Miguel B. BSE EN 2-1 Literature Students are asked to write literary analysis essays because this type of assignment encourages you to think about how and why a poem, short story, novel, or play was written. To successfully analyze literature, you’ll need to remember that authors make specific choices for particular reasons. Your essay should point out the author’s choices and attempt to explain their significance. Another way to look at a literary analysis is to consider a piece of literature from your own perspective. Rather than thinking about the author’s intentions, you can develop an argument based on any single term (or combination of terms) listed below. You’ll just need to use the original text to defend and explain your argument to the reader. Allegory - narrative form in which the characters are representative of some larger humanistic trait (i.e. greed, vanity, or bravery) and attempt to convey some larger lesson or meaning to life. Although allegory was originally and traditionally character based, modern allegories tend to parallel story and theme. William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily- the decline of the Old South Robert Louis Stevenson’s Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde- man’s struggle to contain his inner primal instincts District 9- South African Apartheid X Men- the evils of prejudice Harry Potter- the dangers of seeking “racial purity” Character - representation of a person, place, or thing performing traditionally human......

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African American Literature

...Discovering African American Literature Rebekah Valcarcel Eng/301 November 30th, 2015 Dr. Julie Kares The art of storytelling invites readers into another world. Examining the literary conventions African American authors use allows readers to compare and contrast literary works. Harriet A. Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Terry McMillan’s The End and Maya Angelou’s Willie are significant literary pieces to discuss. It is important to consider factors such as historical, socio-political and cultural climate because these factors contribute and influence an author’s point of view as well as each author’s unique voice and message depending on the time period. Harriet A. Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, is a slave narrative. The literary conventions of the slave narrative define the work. Slave narratives echo biblical stories that often reflect persecuted groups attempting to escape to freedom. Jacobs’s piece details her struggle to escape her master from sexual abuse. Vivanco (2003), “The process from sin to rebirth in spiritual autobiographies is paralleled by the process from slavery to freedom in slave narratives. Slaves experience a change from chattel, enduring suffering, to man or woman living in the Promised Land, the North,” (para. 5). Further distinction of the slave narrative is how authors shape the story, often chronologically. Slave narratives illustrate an author’s personal experience though many share common themes of......

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...that motivation comes from the teacher in the classroom. Of course, motivation may be stimulated by home and may be influenced by peers, but the teacher is the main actor influencing a student's development of reading motivation. What can a teacher do? We offer six motivation practices that teachers can implement daily in the classroom. These practices can be brought into every lesson and directed to every student. Teachers do not have to wait for motivation to come from the outside. They can make it happen any time they want to implement one of these six practices. Research undergirds the impact of these practices on students becoming avid readers and on students becoming achieving readers. We provide examples of these practices from the literature and from our own experiences in our research and teaching. Motivations to read—interest, confidence, dedication Interest When we think of motivation our mind first turns to interest. Motivation is enjoying a book, being excited about an author, or being delighted by new information. Researchers refer to interest as intrinsic motivation. meaning something we do for its own sake. On a rainy day, we might rather read our favorite mystery than do anything else. We are not trying to get a reward when falling into a novel. Motivation also brings to mind the reward for success. Who doesn't like to win a trinket for hitting the target with a dart at the State Fair? Who doesn't want to earn serious money for working hard in a career?......

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African American Literature

...African American Literature ENG/301 Kristina Brooks March 12, 2012 The African American Literature and its history was an interesting subject or ethnic literary to learn about. This literature’s readings showed a great deal of different moments or life events that the different authors experienced as well as tragic events, and heart felt pain they endured over their lifetime. Some authors talked about the wonderful life they lived and how blessed they were to be a white man’s slave. I will be discussing the different views and relations in each of the readings along with the racist remarks and overall way they were treated as an African American over different periods of time. The first reading I want to talk about is, “White Folks Treated Us Good,” by Marriah Hines. In this reading Hines talks about how life as a slave for the white folks was great, so great, that when slavery ended and African Americans were given their freedom, she stayed because of the way her master treated her and stayed loyal to him and his family until he passed away. During the time of slavery, Hines, was never treated bad, nor was she ever beaten or raped by her masters. While some people were starved, and treated like cats and dogs, Hines, was fed and clothed and kept them on a higher level (Hines, M p.34). The next reading I will be talking about is, “To my old Master,” by Jourdan Anderson. This story is a great message about......

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...INTRODUCTION Oral literature of folk literature refers to the heritage of imaginative verbal creations, stories, folk believes and songs of pre-literate societies have been evolved and passed on through the spoken word from one generation to the other. As a relatively new field of study. The African literature is a produce within an environment in the predominant of mode of communication is oral. African writers have also been falling back on the rich oral tradition of their people. The extent to see a writer uses the oral tradition is always often determined by his closeness to the Africa oral tradition. The influence of African oral tradition on African poetry helps to authenticate or establish the authencity of Africa literary tradition Orality in Modern African poetry manifest itself in a number of ways. It has to do with both the content as well as the form of African poetry. The most obvious prove that contemporary African poets are indebted to the indigenous poetic tradition of their people is in their interest in rehabilitating and excavating traditional poetic forms. For instance Wole Soyinka ‘IDANRE’ is best understood within the Ijala poetic traditions among the Yoruba culture. The poem in a sense is a form of Ijala as it celebrates Ogun- the god of Iron Kofi Awoonor also models his poem on the traditional poems of abuse among the Ewe of Ghana. Niyi Osundare has also admitted at many of his poems are written in form of ‘oriki’. Each of these poets has......

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