Assuptions and Fallacies

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By mufasa25
Words 332
Pages 2
Assumptions and Fallacies
Malaea Sauvao
August 12, 2012
Maureen Frye

Assumptions and Fallacies
Assumptions are our beliefs that may or may not be true. I think when we made assumptions we are basically more like guessing instead of researching the information if it is based on facts or more like our own beliefs. This is where assumptions get interfere with critical thinking because it will become a wall that blocks us from evaluating a situation or problem and issues from every angle or an equation. Instead of viewing it critically we would just make assumptions and move on. For me to avoid making assumptions in my thinking I would have to be open minded to all different solutions instead of assuming the results or an outcome. I would also have to stop assuming but do more research and ask the right question and not to be bias at the same time. Learn to examine all evidence in order to make a valid argument to improve my critical thinking.
According to Paul and Elder (2008), “fallacies can be pursued in at least two different ways. One defines, explains, and exemplifies ways in which unsound arguments can be made to appear sound. Or it can be approached deeply, in which case one relates the construction of fallacies to pursuit of human interests and irrational desires.” In other words fallacies are like mistaken beliefs based on unsound arguments. It is like tricking the reader to just focus on the topic without using their reasoning or logic. So it is a perfect tool for persuasion or written, oral and visual arguments because you can use it to sway your audience to your point of view. I think for me to avoid fallacies in my thinking is to check and research the information presented or use critical thinking strategies that I learned in this course to avoid it.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2008). The Thinker's Guide.…...

Similar Documents


...Click a fallacy on the left and drag it over to the correct example on the right. Repeat until all fallacies are correctly matched with their corresponding examples. Congratulations! You have completed this activity. Apple Polishing Of course, Cory, a generous, kind and giving brother, would let us play with his racetrack. Ad Hominem Todd agrees with the referee's call and says the referee made a good decision when he called the pass incomplete; however, this cannot be considered true because Todd is the head coach for the opposing team. Two Wrongs Make a Right On the way to his car, George noticed he was not charged for his second gallon of milk. He decides not to return to the store because if he had overpaid on the item, the store would not have returned his money. Slippery Slope If I do not pass Critical Thinking, I will not be able to move to the next course. If I do not move to the next course, I probably will not be able to continue in school, and if I do not continue in school, I will not earn my degree. Straw Man We might as well forget what Bishop Simon has to say about abortion and ethics. After all, he is a Catholic bishop so it is natural he would have those views. Begging the Question Critical Thinking must be a difficult class because Andrea said so. Red Herring I know you didn't get all your homework done because the Internet is out. But, if you had done the work days ago, you wouldn't be worried now. Appeal to Popularity I read the other day......

Words: 361 - Pages: 2


...provide evidence for its conclusion; whether or not you’ll be excommunicated for disbelieving the geocentric model has no bearing on whether the geocentric model is true. The argument therefore commits the appeal to force fallacy. Example: Ad Hominem (1) William Dembski argues that modern biology supports the idea that there is an intelligent designer who created life. (2) Dembski would say that because he’s religious. Therefore: (3) Modern biology doesn’t support intelligent design. This argument rejects the view that intelligent design is supported by modern science based on a remark about the person advancing the view, not by engaging with modern biology. It ignores the argument, focusing only on the arguer; it is therefore a fallacious argument ad hominem. Red Herring “You may think that he cheated on the test, but look at the poor little thing! How would he feel if you made him sit it again?” An appeal to pity, for example, can be used to distract from the issue at hand. Example: Bandwagon (1) Increasingly, people are coming to believe that Eastern religions help us to get in touch with our true inner being. Therefore: (2) Eastern religions help us to get in touch with our true inner being. This argument commits the bandwagon fallacy because it appeals to the mere fact that an idea is fashionable as evidence that the idea is true. Mere trends in thought are not reliable guides to truth, though; the fact that Eastern religions are becoming more......

Words: 722 - Pages: 3


...meant for, it was a success, however, the phrase itself, if taken literally, was a failure and definitely a fallacy. “Remember the Alamo" is a non sequitur fallacy in today’s society. Originally, the phrase was used as a battle cry during the “massacres by Mexican forces at the Alamo in San Antonio.” (Answers) I believe the original rendition of the slogan was completely relevant to its said situation, but today, people use the phrase as a way to convey strength and honor in essentially any situation. In this case the slogan can be a non sequitur fallacy because the original claim usually has no correlation to what a person may be talking about. People like to use the slogan simply because it can add power to a statement, therefore making it a fallacy and unsuccessful in its purpose. “Guns don’t kill people, people do,” is a slogan from the National Rifle Association. (Lunsford) This statement is recognized as an equivocation fallacy due to the fact that it can be seen as a half-truth. Yes, guns kill people, and yes, people kill people, but is one the result of the other? It is questionable. The NRA uses this slogan to give themselves a good image by claiming that it is not their weapons that kill people when in reality, if the weapons were illegal, there could be less deaths. Some people, however, find truth in the slogan, therefore making it a successful fallacy. During his election, Hoover used the faulty analogy, “a chicken in every pot,” as an......

Words: 440 - Pages: 2


...Locating Fallacies in Articles How can I attain balance in my life to become a successful JIU student?   After reading the article: Academic Performance of College Students; I discovered a fallacy. The article is a research that was completed in 2006, but it is a little misleading for the reader, due to college students are less prepared for college-level work than their predecessors. It says they spend less hours studying and more hours working. Through out times, students have balanced work and study. Even though most students work, they find jobs to work around there classes. Most students work part-time up to 20 hours a week, to allow many hours for homework. Plus college students take their homework them, allowing them to study on breaks or lunch times. The article almost made me believe that the grades fail due to not enough studying and working to much. Maybe it should take in account that it is not all about work. It should take into account that this is the first time these students have lived on there own, without parental supervision. How freshman students have to learn how to balance school, work and outside social activities. Time management is something we learn, it is not imbedded in us or part of our nature, but by trial and error we learn to bring balance in. It is a time that we start learning how to manage our time, while accomplishing our grades, and enjoying our surroundings. The H.W. Wilson Company/Wilson Web Author: Sarath......

Words: 275 - Pages: 2


...Fallacy Summaries with Examples Name: Institution: Fallacy Summaries with Examples Appeal to Authority The fallacy of appeal to authority also referred to as the Fallacious Appeal to Authority, irrelevant Authority or Ad Vercundiam takes the following form, the first person is claimed to be an authority on subject S and hence makes a claim C about subject S hence making C true. The fallacy is mostly committed when the individual in question is not a lawful authority on the subject. This implies that if an individual A does not merit making reliable claims on a subject B, the argument becomes fallacious. The reasoning becomes fallacious when the individual under focus is not necessarily an expert hence the given cases makes the reasoning flawed since there is no justification for the claim since an unauthorized person made the claim. In the event that a person falls prey to the fallacy, then it implies that the individual is accepting a claim as being true in the absence of adequate evidence to do so. Additionally, the individual accepting the claim does so erroneously on belief that the individual making the claim is an expert which implies that the claim is reasonable to accept. Example 1 An argument about the morality of abortion Individual A: I strongly believe in abortion as being morally acceptable simply because a woman aught to have a right over her own body. Individual B: I strongly disagree. Findings from numerous medical researches say that abortion is......

Words: 1757 - Pages: 8


...people think that they need to be skinner and want to see more about what the product is. For logos I used the Josh Peck picture at the end to show this. At first he was bigger and was alone, but once he used weight watchers then he was attracting the opposite sex. I also used the Josh Peck to convey the slippery slope fallacy. Slippery slope arguments falsely assume that one thing must lead to another. They begin by suggesting that if we do one thing then that will lead to another, and before we know it we’ll be doing something that we don’t want to do. So according to my advertisement Weight Watchers will help attract the opposite sex. Another fallacy I used in my advertisement was the hasty generalization fallacy. his fallacy is committed when a person draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is not large enough. I said that “If they can do it, then so can you!” To make you feel like you are lazy or not determined like they are to do it. But I only showed a few people so it might not of worked for everyone. It just makes it seem like they are doing it so everyone is. The last fallacy I used was the bandwagon fallacy. The bandwagon fallacy is committed by arguments that appeal to the growing popularity of an idea as a reason for accepting it as true. They take the mere fact that an idea suddenly attracting adherents as a reason for us to join in with the trend and become adherents of the idea ourselves. “Everyone is doing it so you should too.” Its......

Words: 522 - Pages: 3


...Africa's problems are by and large internal…True, agricultural subsidies must be lifted by the US and the EU, but simply throwing aid money at the problem will ultimately come to no good. After all, even when African countries do possess sources of great wealth--diamonds in Sierra Leone and oil in Nigeria, for instance--those resources often end up being a curse on95% of the respective country's populace. On the other hand, a few nations have done better through internal improvements; Botswana is often cited as an example of this, but their 40% Aids rate--definitely attributable to rampant sexual activity--is impossible to overlook. Encapsulated in this spiel are what could be termed ‘the four great fallacies of the Africa Debate’. I’ll attend to each of these in turn. Fallacy 1 - Africa’s problems are by in large internal There’s no denying that some of Africa’s problems are internal but the claim that they are entirely (or even by in large internal) is demonstrably false: it ignores history and turns a blind eye to the interconnected world that we live in. For a start, many of Africa’s current problems stem from the colonial epoch; and colonialism was hardly an internal process. Instead, an external force (that’s us – the Europeans) plundered Africa’s natural and human resources and set in place tools of governance (involving an extractive local elite) that still haunt the continent today. The example that Chris uses above of Botswana is illustrative in this......

Words: 1622 - Pages: 7


...overall assessment of the strength of the argument being presented in the cartoon? * Project discusses clearly critical thinking concepts and thoroughly provides a critical analysis of the printed words and imagery that address: whether the words or imagery alone could work as an argument; meaning or interpretation that may depend on implication, assumption, or inferences; claim that is being made; whether evidence or premises are “warranted”; the intended audience; the specific claim; the goal to persuade someone to take action or accept a belief; the strategic argument style used; the effectiveness of persuasion; the use of specific appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos; apparent logical problems such as use of visual deception or fallacies; how the argument might be improved. * Project is well written. * Project meets posted length requirements. | B: 88-98 points | * Essay demonstrates some understanding of the visual arguments through the title, introduction, introduction to the ad/cartoon, and thesis statement. * Project discusses critical thinking concepts and provides a critical analysis of the printed words and imagery addressed. * Project is well written. * Project meets posted length requirements. | C: 77-87 points | * Essay demonstrates some understanding of the visual arguments through the title, introduction, introduction to the ad/cartoon, and thesis statement. * Project discusses vaguely critical thinking concepts and......

Words: 1351 - Pages: 6


...Appendix C Categorizing Fallacies Categorize each fallacy statement by copying and pasting it into the text box adjacent to its matching fallacy type. Fallacy Statements |Fallacy Type |Fallacy Statement | |Ad hominem/genetic |3. From a study group member: “I just don’t get it. One minute she says she’s coming, and| | |then the next, she calls to cancel. I wonder if we can trust that the articles she | | |submitted are what we need!” | | | | | | | |Wishful thinking |1. It takes someone with a really big heart to give to our charity, and you seem like | | |someone who cares more than most. | | | | |“Argument” from popularity | | | |12. From a conspiracy theorist: “Come on,......

Words: 524 - Pages: 3

Ambigious Fallacy

...Ambiguous Middle Term Four-Term Fallacy Taxonomy: Logical Fallacy > Informal Fallacy > Ambiguity > Equivocation > Ambiguous Middle < Four-Term Fallacy < Syllogistic Fallacy < Formal Fallacy < Logical Fallacy Form: Any validating form of categorical syllogism with an ambiguous middle term. For a short introduction to categorical syllogisms, see the entry for syllogistic fallacy. Example Counter-Example All human fetuses are human. Any human is a being with a right to life. Therefore, all human fetuses are beings with a right to life. All dog fetuses are canine. Any canine is an animal that must be on a leash. Therefore, all dog fetuses are animals that must be on a leash. Exposition: A categorical syllogism is, by definition, an argument with three categorical terms occurring within it. Each such term occurs in two statements in the argument, and the middle term is the one that occurs in both premisses but not in the conclusion. Since each term occurs twice in a syllogism, if any term is ambiguous it is possible that it occurs with two different meanings. If the syllogism would be otherwise valid, it is said to commit the syllogistic four-term fallacy―that is, a single word may ambiguously stand for two terms. In effect, such an argument has four terms, which violates the definition of "categorical syllogism". Moreover, if a word or phrase in such an argument ambiguously represents two terms, the argument commits the informal fallacy of......

Words: 1095 - Pages: 5


...Nicole Bratcher-Bouyer February 3, 2015 Fallacy Essay Don’t Be a Menace The hit 1996 movie Don’t Be a Menace to South Central While Drinking Your Juice in the Hood is a remake of multiple classic hood movies mixed into one, in which the writers utilized rhetorical fallacies to point out stereotypes of black youth growing up in the hood. There are a plethora of fallacies in the film, but two stood out to me the most. The first major fallacy of the film begins in the scene of the main character, Trey, being dropped off by his mother to his father’s house in South Central. In the car they have one last heart to heart about what he needs to do now in order to insure he has a great future ahead of him. This intimate moment begins with the following fallacy: “Trey, I don’t want you hanging out in these streets. I want you to finish school ‘cause without an education the only kind of work you’re going to get is selling drugs, pimping women, or working security for Eddie Murphy.” This statement is an example of a slippery slope fallacy, which is an argument that falsely assumes one thing will lead to another. In this case Trey’s mother is falsely assuming without an education Trey will only have three outcomes in life, in which all are negative, but she used this fallacy to stress the importance of an education to Trey. However, the writers used the fallacy to point out the stereotype that every black man who does not finish school will only end up living bad alternative......

Words: 686 - Pages: 3


...Abstract A fallacy is an argument that uses poor reasoning. An argument can be fallacious whether or not its conclusion is true. A fallacy can be either formal or informal. An error that stems from a poor logical form is sometimes called a formal fallacy or simply an invalid argument. My paper will involve the fallacy of false cause, fallacy of accident, and fallacy of equivocation and amphiboly. It will gives examples on how there are many connections of the world and the fallacies. Fallacies Talking about fallacy in logic means an error in reasoning that seems to be correct but when you check closer, the fallacy is not correct. There are several different groups of fallacies which all have different definitions. There are fallacies of relevance, fallacy of defective induction, fallacies of presumption, and fallacies of ambiguity. These are called informal fallacies or material fallacies, something like a replica. There proves to be over a hundred different fallacies. I will only talk about a few, which are fallacy of false cause, fallacy of accident, fallacies of equivocation and fallacy of amphiboly. I will explain how the different fallacies connect with each other in an either similar way or a distinct way. You will see how fallacies have such similarity to meanings we have learned about since we were children. I will tell you how the different fallacies apply to the world and how they are all similar to our everyday thoughts. Fallacy of false cause and......

Words: 1250 - Pages: 5

Logical Fallacies

...Logical Fallacies Fallacies are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. Fallacies can be either illegitimate arguments or irrelevant points, and are often identified because they lack evidence that supports their claim. Avoid these common fallacies in your own arguments and watch for them in the arguments of others. • o Slippery Slope: This is a conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps, through B, C,..., X, Y, Z will happen, too, basically equating A and Z. So, if we don't want Z to occur, A must not be allowed to occur either. Example:If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers. In this example, the author is equating banning Hummers with banning all cars, which is not the same thing. o Hasty Generalization: This is a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence. In other words, you are rushing to a conclusion before you have all the relevant facts. Example: Even though it's only the first day, I can tell this is going to be a boring course. In this example, the author is basing his evaluation of the entire course on only the first day, which is notoriously boring and full of housekeeping tasks for most courses. To make a fair and reasonable evaluation the author must attend not one but several classes, and possibly even examine the textbook, talk to the professor, or......

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5


...may think that his opinion is unacceptable. Is there anyone fighting his stand? Fallacies “as long as you do the work, showing up for a class should be irrelevant." This violates the fallacy, weak induction. We see that Kevin is trying to convince Tanya against the idea of going to class. We can almost agree with him that if we are done with our assignments, we don't have to attend classes. In this case, there is an apparent logic that we are done with our assignments and now, class attendance ought to be irrelevant. The connection is weak especially being that people do not just go to class to hand over assignments, but rather read, interact and even get the response from the professor. I don't think he's taking a just approach to -grading, because he isn't dealing with us fairly This violates the too much proof fallacy. A notion that builds on one happening being connected to another and if found to be valid can be developed into an absurd conclusion. In this case, the professor is accused of not being fair to the students. This is being connected to the idea that he is also taking a just approach to grading he students. Is this can be proven, it can be absurd that Kevin was the only person who notices this. “Maybe the professor resents that-I guess it makes him look bad if students can do okay without actually having to be in the same room with him all the time." This violates the fallacy of presumption and ambiguity. In this case, Kevin has already made steps......

Words: 1004 - Pages: 5


...The Fallacy of Perfection: the belief that you should be able to handle every situation with confidence and skill. Once you believe that it is possible to be a perfect communicator, the next step is to believe that others won’t like you if you’re not perfect. If you feel this way, sharing feelings of uncertainty or admitting your mistakes seem like social defects. Trying to appear perfect uses up energy and risks friendships. Your self-esteem suffers as well when you don’t measure up to your own expectations. It is a relief when you accept the idea that you’re not perfect, and that: Like everyone else, you sometimes have a hard time expressing yourself. Like everyone else, you make mistakes and there is no reason to hide this. You are honestly doing the best you can to reach your potential and to become the best person you can be. The Fallacy of Approval: is based on the belief that you must have the approval of almost everyone. You may sacrifice your own principles and happiness to seek the acceptance of others. Accepting this leads to some ridiculous situations; Feeling nervous because people you really don’t like seem to disapprove of you. Feeling apologetic when others are at fault. Feeling embarrassed after behaving unnaturally to gain approval. The fallacy of approval is irrational because it implies that people will like you more if you go out of your way to please them. Ultimately people won’t respect you if you compromise your own values. ......

Words: 1308 - Pages: 6