Atrial Septal Defect

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Submitted By ARAPMUTTEN1
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A baby is born with a hole between the right and left atrium. Thinking of the anatomy of the heart, what symptoms would you expect to see? How would the symptoms be different if the hole was located between the right and left ventricles?
Blood from the body will enter the heart through vena cava to the right atria through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and to the lungs. This blood is deoxygenated or it lack oxygen. In the lungs, carbon dioxide will be removed and replaced by oxygen in the process called oxygenation. Then oxygenated blood will flow out of the lungs via pulmonary vein to the left atria, to the left ventricles and to the body via Aorta. Left and right atria are separated by the septum. When there is a “hole” between right and left atrium, blood will flow from left to right atrium instead of flowing to the body. This is called atrial septal defect (ASD). According to American Heart Association (AHA), “this defect allows oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart”, hence reducing oxygen circulating in the body. When there is less oxygen in the body, the patient will have the following symptoms; dizziness, shortness of breath, lung problems including pneumonia, and change in heart and lung sounds due to accumulation of blood in the heart.
If there is a “hole between right and left ventricles, the blood will be flowing from left to right ventricles due to high pressure on the left ventricle compared to that of the right. There will be less blood flowing to systemic circulation and most of oxygenated blood will be within the pulmonic circulations. The symptom faced by the patient will include; heart murmur, pulmonary hypertension due to large blood volume in the pulmonary circulation, and rapid breathing to compensate a lack of enough oxygen in the systemic circulation.
Several types of artificial hearts…...

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