Biofuel and Biomass

In: Science

Submitted By fetego
Words 739
Pages 3
Biomass & Biofuel

Biomass & Biofuel: The Future

Umaer Ahmed

SBI4U-03

Badgery, J.

01/02/13

Biomass & Biofuel: The Future

Biofuels are a recent development that has stemmed a great deal of research into the issue of alternative energy. The energy that we get from biofuels originally came from the sun. This solar energy was captured through photosynthesis by the plants used as feedstock (raw materials) for biofuel production, and stored in the plants’ cells. This energy-containing biomass is converted into biofuel through biochemical, chemical, and thermo chemical conversion processes. For example, ethanol, today’s largest volume of biofuel, is produced through a biochemical process. In this process, yeasts ferment sugar from starch and sugar crops into ethanol. Most ethanol is produced from sugar canes and cornstarch. Biochemical conversion techniques allow us to make use of more abundant “cellulosic” biomass sources such as grass, trees, and agricultural residues. A simpler chemical process used to produce a biofuel is the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel facilities start with vegetable oils, seed oils, or animal fats and reacts them with methanol/ethanol in the presence of a catalyst. Algae and plants can serve as a natural source of oil which refineries can convert into jet fuel or diesel fuel. Once the biomass has been converted into biofuel, the biofuel is used to generate electricity in the same way as other fuels. Biofuels are combusted and their energy is converted to heat. The heat is used to boil water in order to produce steam. Finally, the steam drives electrical turbines that produce electricity.

Biomass energy is the third largest source of Canada’s electricity generation. Its share in Canada’s electricity generation is 1.4%…...

Similar Documents

Biomass

...A RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD - FUELING THE FUTURE WITH BIOMASS Malathi.N I year MBA, School of Management Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore. ABSTRACT Concerns about the availability and long-term supply of petroleum-derived fuels have caused the search for alternative sources of energy. After a century of unprecedented growth in science, technology, and the economy, we now face tremendous challenges to our ability to fuel the future: a fluctuating oil price, a changing climate, and continued dependence on unreliable energy sources. These problems are increasingly personal, and the demand for solutions becomes increasingly urgent. The ultimate solutions will only come from fundamental innovations in science and technology. Liquid fuels will for some applications be necessary for an indefinite period of time. Therefore, defining relevant feedstocks, producing fuels from these feedstocks and the properties of these fuels are critical issues. The utilization of biomass resources assumes importance due to the soaring crude price and depleting reserves of fossil fuels coupled with the rising environmental concern. Ethanol derived from renewable ligno-cellulosic biomass of non-edible variety has been identified globally as the future solution for meeting the energy demand. Apart from fuel and energy, biomass can also be the source of large number of derivatives. Biomass can be used for fuels, power production, and products that would otherwise be......

Words: 2726 - Pages: 11

Biofuels

... Biofuels. Name: Institution: Course: Tutor: Date: A biofuel is made from a biological process known as carbon fixation. These biofuels are gotten from the conversion of biomass, solid biomass, liquid fuels as well as biogases. The biofuels are continued to be known because of the high prices of fossil fuels and also for the purposes of ensuring fuel security in various countries. (Caye, D. & Terry W.2008). The biofuels are produced from two distinct ways; that is through metabolic by-products or from living organisms. Examples of biofuels include; bioethanol which is an alcohol made from fermentation process. Another example of biofuels is biodiesel which is made from vegetable oils as well as animal fats. Biofuels have got several ways in which they are made. Therefore in this essay I am going to analyze few methods. Biofuels are made from materials known as feedstock. This comprises mostly of crops or products mainly waste vegetable oil. (Mitchell, D. 2010). These materials are converted to biofuels or bioenergy. These feedstocks have got merits and demerits depending on what percentage of biofuel can be gotten from them. Feedstocks can further be classified as first and second generation. The former refers to those which are widely grown by people and at the same time used for some other purposes. They are mostly used for food and feed production. (Lane, J. 2010). Hence, they serve the purpose of being used as food as well as to produce biofuels. The examples of......

Words: 1598 - Pages: 7

Tilapia as Biofuel

...el Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Scales as a source of BIOFUEL Rsearcher: Jelyne Daryl F. Romero Background of the Study Fuels are substance that give off heat when they burn. Fuel provides our world energy use for heating, cooking, powering ships, cars, and machines and electricity. High prices of gasoline pose a problem to many people. Higher energy costs are flowing down into the costs of other products that we buy. And most people are affected especially the poor people. On the other hand, using the scales of Tilapia as a good source of BIOFUEL, in one way or another, will add to demand for said palm. The use and promotion of BIOFUEL in the country could be a “win-win solution” for both the people and the environment as the world is currently facing a phenomenon called global warming. The use of BIOFUEL will also unlock the country’s dependence on fossil fuels which price depends on the international market. Both Biodiesel and Ethanol are clean, grow-your-own fuels that can be made onsite in villages or local communities from renewable, locally available resources, for the most part using simple equipment that a local workshop can make and maintain. These fuels are among a wide range sustainable local energy options. Others are methane (biogas) digesters that run livestock, crop, and food wastes into cooking and heating gas, charcoal and fuel wood (good fuels unless over harvesting......

Words: 1089 - Pages: 5

Biomass

...English 101 Linda Martin Research Paper Jordan Hartt November 29, 2010 Slash/Burn and Chips An argument for Biomass Co-Generation Biomass co-generation is the historically proved approach to energy production. For thousands of years, the Plains Indians (then early settlers) used buffalo chips to build fires to heat their tepees (and sod huts). This was probably the first use of biomass energy in America. Early settlers learned from the Indians to heat their sod huts. After the buffalo became extinct, cow chips were used. On the plains there weren’t many trees and coal had not been discovered there, so this was a matter of survival (Whyte n.d.). Once the chips were dried in the sun they were almost odorless, and placed outside the tepees and sod huts. Western pioneers would modify their stoves to burn cow chips as they were plentiful along the cattle drive trails where the cattle were brought to the railroad cars for sale, and transporting to other areas. They compacted hay and then twisted it into twig-like bundles called cats. When the settlers started farming on the plains, they used corn stalks, corn cobs, and sunflower stalks as a source of fuel. In the United States, the first facility identified as a biomass power plant went on line in 1982. Using corn residues, rice husks, soy beans and sorghum residues, willows, switch grass, and organic waste from land fills as fuel, we could provide enough energy for all the homes in New England (Whyte n.d.). I...

Words: 3497 - Pages: 14

Innovation in Biofuel

...to fossil fuel are biofuels which have received much attention worldwide and they have already generated 45% of all energy from natural fuels in Brazil.(Sims & Taylor, 2008) The most widely used biofuel is the first generation biofuel which is make from plants like sugarcane, oilseed. By using these kinds plants, ethanol and oil can be produced.(Ahmad, Mat Yasin, Derek, & Lim, 2011) In this essay, innovations in biofuels will be divided into 3 sectors with examples illustrated. 2. The Innovation Dimension 3.1 Innovation Type Innovation can be divided into four types: production innovation, process innovation, position innovation and paradigm innovation. (Tidd, Bessant, & Pavitt, 2005)In the biofuel sector, product innovation and process innovation are widely used. Product innovations are changes in the products which an organization offers. Process innovations are changes in the ways in which they are created and delivered. 3.2.1 Product Innovation Product innovations take place when the market requires new features of the established product. (Tidd, Bessant, & Pavitt, 2005)For example, first generation biofuel has been used as vehicle energy source for decades and become mature. However, it was not able to apply in the aircraft engine. New regulations were made for airline industry recently and a great demand for airplane biofuel emerged. Biofuel producers decided to change ingredient of the currently used biofuel so that these......

Words: 2727 - Pages: 11

Advances in Conversion of Hemicellulosic Biomass to Furfural and Upgrading to Biofuels

...View Online / Journal Homepage / Table of Contents for this issue Catalysis Science & Technology Cite this: Catal. Sci. Technol., 2012, 2, 2025–2036 www.rsc.org/catalysis Dynamic Article Links MINIREVIEW Advances in conversion of hemicellulosic biomass to furfural and upgrading to biofuels Saikat Dutta, Sudipta De, Basudeb Saha* and Md. Imteyaz Alam Downloaded on 15 September 2012 Published on 01 June 2012 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/C2CY20235B Received 14th April 2012, Accepted 28th May 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2cy20235b Recent approaches to furfural synthesis from hemicellulosic biomass and pentose sugars with both homogeneous and solid acidic catalysts have been summarized by addressing the associated sustainability issues. The features of deconstruction of hemicellulosic biomass by acid hydrolysis to produce pentose sugar feedstock for furfural have been discussed in brief. Several strategies including solvent extraction in a biphasic process, application of surface functionalized materials such as acidic resins, mesoporous solids and mechanistic insight in limited cases are discussed. The present status of the promising furfural platform in producing second generation biofuels (furanics and hydrocarbon) is reviewed. The performances of each catalytic system are assessed in terms of intrinsic reactivity and selectivity toward furfural production. Overall, this minireview attempts to highlight the scope of further developments for a sustainable......

Words: 10852 - Pages: 44

Biomass

...Should the world use biofuels? In our rapidly changing world we have petroleum fuel that gives life to our whole society. We have two main options for fuel. On one hand, we have fossil fuels, which causes a great deal of pollution our planet and although we have plenty of fuel reserves now, this fuel is not renewable and will therefore be exhausted in the future. On the other hand,we have biofuels, renewable fuel that do not cause as much pollution; however, biofuels would require research, development and other changes in the established system. Biofuels would be a good alternative to fossil fuels, but require research and development. One reason biofuels should be used is that they are made from renewable plant material. Two examples of good possible sources of biofuel are kudzu and algae both of which can grow very quickly and are not used for the food of the human population. These two plants yield a great deal of renewable fuel that can replace the fossil fuels in use today. The ability to produce renewable fuel is an important faction into the why the world should use of biofuel as opposed to fossil fuel. The second reason that the world should use biofuel as opposed to fossil fuel is that they produce much less pollution in comparison to their fossil fuels counterparts. Fossil fuels release gases that have been formally trapped in the Earths crust; therefore, they cause much more pollution then biofuels, which do not release formally trapped gases but gases that......

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Biofuel

...Fuel for Thought Fuel that made from biological materials such as plants and animals is defined as biofuel. “Fuel for thought-All biofuels are not created equal”, is an article written by David Tillman and Jason Hill. This article describes how biofuel has made a complete circle from when it was first introduced 100 years ago. In the beginning hay and oats were our first transportation biofuels. These in turn were replaced by gasoline. In present day biodiesel from soybeans and ethanol from corn have started taking the place of diesel and gas. Switching to ethanol and biodiesel has been something of a positive as it helps reduce the threat of climate change and ease dependence on foreign oil. The downside, however, is that we are in conflict with some of our most important needs: food, energy, and a livable environment. (Hill) We are now coming into problems finding and providing answers to the food, fuel, and environment dilemma. If properly produced there are biofuels that can provide climate friendly energy. The difficulty is figuring out where and how to grow them. Our most abundant lands are being used for food production. As demand for energy and food inflates, competition for rich fertile lands could possibly increase food prices and force some of the poorer people into starvation. There is also the threat of extinction of many different plants and animals. Rainforests and other eco systems would potentially be destroyed to make room for new farms. We......

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Biomass

...Biomass Biomass can be garbage, wood chips, sugar-cane remnants or grass. Almost all the renewable-energy power in Florida comes from biomass, including three plants in Miami-Dade and Broward. Biomass produces 1,100 megawatts of power for Florida, according to a recent study by Navigant Consultants. About half of that comes from 11 waste-to-energy plants that process local garbage and trash and the other half is the leftovers from timber and sugar cane industries. Miami Dade’s yard waste is used to produce 77megawatt biomass facility. The County’s Resources Recovery Facility is one of the most technologically advanced waste-to-energy facilities in the world, while featuring a state-of-art air quality control system. More than 1.2 million tons of waste is processed annually, with 270,000 tons of the material being processed into a biomass fuel for export out of Miami-Dade County. The RRF is supported by three County-owned and operated landfills and three solid waste transfer stations. While receiving waste from these facilities, they will separate all aluminum and ferrous metals, from the garbage, to be sold to recycling plants. The garbage is then shredded and used to generate electricity. Their process produces a biomass fuel which is used on site to supplement the refuse derived fuel. The remaining biomass fuel is sold to cogeneration facilities in Central Florida. The ash product resulting from the waste-to-energy process is 10% of the original waste material delivered......

Words: 1287 - Pages: 6

Biofuels

...Biofuels are in no way capable of being a permanent solution to the fossil fuel crisis that is currently facing our country, and our planet. Corn is one of the most widely produced crops in the world, yet the ethanol produced still only accounts for small percentages of the fuel being used by drivers across the world. Most combustion engines are only equipped to handle a 15% ethanol rate. It would be ill-advised to even attempt to further incorporate Biofuels into the transportation industry beyond the point at which they are used now. Disregarding the logistical problems associated with increasing the use of biofuels, the production of Biofuels is much too inefficient, and any further use of them could potentially cause economic problems, in the form of corn based products being forced to raise their prices. Biofuels could never be a permanent solution to the oil issues currently facing our country, and our planet. Because of the amount of labor, energy usage, pesticides, petroleum based fungicides, cultivation, and fermentation costs, among other things, needed to produce Biofuels, the benefit barely outweighs the means used in production. The current corn-to-ethanol production models show that it is unethical to increase the use of Biofuels made from commercially grown crops. It would just not be cost effective enough to merit an increase in the use of biofuels, when there are more ethical ways in which to utilize the crops grown throughout the world, such as......

Words: 1108 - Pages: 5

Biomass Gasification

...International Journal of Chemical Sciences and Applications ISSN 0976-2590. Vol 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp 232-240 http://www.bipublication.com SIMULATION OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION REACTOR FOR FUEL IN GAS TURBINE Ratnadip R Joshi1, B D Kulkarni2 1 Dept. of Petrochemical Engineering, MAEER's Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Paud Road, Pune. PIN 411038 Maharashtra, India. 2 Distinguished Scientist, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India. 1 Corresponding author: Email: ratnadip.joshi@mitpune.edu.in, Tel: +91-9423332754; ABSTRACT Energy produced from biofuels or there conversion products represent an important part among today’s energy sources. As biofuels are renewable, abundant and has domestic usage, the sources of biofuels can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products and natural gas. Biofuels can be converted into liquid, solid and gaseous fuels with the help of some physical, chemical and biological conversion processes. The conversion of biofuel material has a precise objective to transform a carbonaceous solid material, which is originally difficult to handle, bulky and of low energy concentration, into fuels having physico-chemical characteristics that permit economic storage and transferability through pumping systems. The use of biofuel products provides substantial benefits as far as the environment is concerned. A simulation study has been carried out to arrive at the power output under limiting conditions as well......

Words: 2979 - Pages: 12

Biomass Lab

...Biomass Lab Design     Research Question:​  How will the amount of soil added to the pot affect the growth of the plant?     Background Information:​  Plants gain biomass through photosynthesis which sunlight produces  energy and converts carbon dioxide along with water to carbohydrates and oxygen. Plant materials  such as soil and fertilizer can also be used to produce biomass and produce biofuel from the  nutrients.     Hypothesis: ​ If more soil is added to the plants pot, then more biomass will produce in the plant.     Explanation: ​ I predict the more soil the plant has, the more biomass it will have, because if the plant  has more soil it will be supplied to more nutrients to absorb. As a plant absorbs more nutrients it will  grow with the amount it takes in causing more biomass to be produced.     Independent Variables: ​ The amount of soil     Dependent Variables: ​ The total amount of biomass produced     Materials:    ● Beaker  ● 3 Pots  ● Soil  ● Basil Seeds  ● Water  ● An area with accessible light   ● Textbook or a heavy book  ● Scale  ● Pencil  ● Paper Towels   ● Measuring Cup      Procedures:   1) Gather all materials and buy things as needed from a local store such as Home Depot.  You  will need a Beaker, a pot, soil, basil seeds, water, an area with accessible sunlight, a  textbook or an heavy object, a scale, a pencil, paper towels , and a measuring cup  2)......

Words: 482 - Pages: 2

The Quest for Biofuels: Issues and Concerns

...The Quest for Biofuels: Issues and Concerns Biofuels have been billed as an important component in the United States bid to become less dependent on foreign energy. As the price of crude oil continues to increase, and as the country sets its sights on becoming less dependent on foreign oil the pressure is mounting to increase the production of biofuels. In addition, the global energy demand is continuing to increase and known petroleum supplies are decreasing (CAST II, 2007); the need for a sustainable substitute for current fossil fuels has become more evident than ever. The rise in costs of traditional energy sources has raised this issue to prominence in many American households as well. Several government agencies and working groups have set goals, targets, and timelines for reducing the use of fossil fuels and the substitution of biofuels to fill the energy demand. This push for the use of biofuels will have dramatic effects on many sectors of the American economy and many new problems and issues will arise that need to be considered. Currently grain-based ethanol production is the primary means by which biofuels are produced in the United States. Corn is the grain of choice in this production system. The annual production capacity of ethanol has increased rapidly in recent years, from 1.7 billion gallons in 2000 to 4.3 billion gallons in 2006 (CAST, 2006). It is also projected that the annual production capacity will increase to 7 billion gallons by 2008 (CAST,......

Words: 1915 - Pages: 8

Biomass

...Biomass: Will It Be Too Late? Susan Bergeron NSCI 280 Nicole Finley Bryant & Stratton 11/24/2011 Biomass: Will It Be Too Late There are wide assessments of biomass energy’s role in expanding our national energy supplies. There are advantages and limitations in the U. S. ethanol industry which research is being done even more than ever because of such high petroleum prices. According to Choices magazine the main advantage of ethanol is cost reducing as a gasoline additive and as a gasoline replacement using E85, which are motor fuel blends of 85% ethanol and just 15% gasoline. The problem is there are not enough corn crops to supply the gasoline demands. Other technologies are needed if bio-energy is going to expand its role in the national energy scene. Biomass processing could become profitable in the future with improvement in technology. The most important benefit of renewable energy systems is the decrease of environmental pollution and using up our current resources. However the role of biomass-ethanol in natural energy supply depends upon the success of fuel processing technologies and the energy price increase. Is there enough public knowledge to help promote and fund the need of modern technology that is needed to supply us with ethanol and biodiesel? “Biomass is a generic term for all vegetable material. It is generally a term for material derived from growing plants or from animal manure. The term modern biomass is generally used to......

Words: 950 - Pages: 4

Biofuel Energy

...Introduction Originated from energy crops, biofuels are increasingly being considered as a sustainable energy source when compared with fossil carbon sources. Interrelated factors have led to increased demand for this green energy. Factors include increased energy demand due to resource depletion and instability in oil producing regions, recent technological breakthroughts in agriculture and concerns over environmental impacts such as climate change (Hall et al., 2009). Biofuel development is in addition driven by rural development, job creation (Kraeussl et al., 2004), increasing energy self-suciency and improving competitiveness (EC, 1996, 1997). In Europe, conventional energy crops appear like widely marketed productions, after Brazil and the USA. This expansion has been spurred by the Kyoto Protocol signed in December 1997 and by the European energy policy. Neverthless, food crops and residues from forestry and agriculture cannot provide all biomass needed to ful ll the high future demand. As a result, second generation biofuels originated from perennial biomass crops has been developed. These crops are characterized by a high land use e eciency and their production indicates a substantial reduction in GreenHouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Among others these crops are annually harvested perennial crops like miscanthus. Miscanthus (Miscanthus x Giganteus)1 is a perennial rhizomatous grass which has its origins in the tropics and subtropics, but di erent species......

Words: 384 - Pages: 2