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Words 781

Pages 4

Budgeting is in its simplest term, an estimation of future outflow/ inflow of money as well as predicted income within a fixed period of time. Budgeting is to many companies, a method of allocating resources. It also serves to evaluate its performance of the organization. Thus I agree to a large extent that budgeting is a key component in management in short and long term planning.

Short-term budgeting (Advantages)

The pros of short-term budgeting is, firstly, it can help to improve the co-relations between employee as they will be communicating with each other closely to meet the budget plans set by the company.

Secondly, budgeting can helps the company to improve in allocating the resources as request are justified. Company will base on the budget plan to acquire the resources that is needed for the company to produce its products and maintain the quality of the production.

Thirdly, it will provide companies with a record of its organizational activities throughout the month/year. By having these records, it allows companies to compare its standard plan with the actual result produce within the month/year. Thus organization can further improve its budgeting plans in future and solve the problems face during the past month/year.

Disadvantages

However, there are also disadvantages of having a short-term budgeting. Firstly, it will faces strong competition to allocate resources from the external forces such as other companies in the same line of production.

Secondly, Employees will be demotivated to work in its best as there will be lack of participation in the budgeting plans to voice out it views. In addition, by having a budgeting plan mean the costs, working environment and work load will be affected. Personal interest of the employee will be afraid that their job would not be secured as they do not understand/trust the motive behind the…...

...Answer ● Difference of Two Square Numbers Given: 16² - 25² Steps: - Get the sum of the two base numbers 25 + 16 = 41 - Difference of the two base numbers 25 – 16 = 9 - Multiply the sum and difference 41 × 9 = 369 ↓ Final Answer Examples: 1. Given: 17² - 20² - 20 + 17 = 37 - 20 – 17 = 3 - 37 × 3 = 111 → Final Answer 2. Given: 58² - 69² - 69 + 58 = 127 - 69 – 58 = 11 - 127 × 11 = 1397 → Final Answer 3. Given: 45² - 51² - 51 + 45 = 96 - 51 – 45 = 6 - 96 × 6 = 576 → Final Answer SHORTCUTS IN MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS (Project in Number Theory 8) Phoebe Kyle Nadine B. Malig-on 8 – Archimedes Mdme. Marichu S. Gajardo (subject teacher)...

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...for LED’s (with different types of LED’s circuits) This tutorial will help you to find the proper value of resistor (or resistors) for one or more LED’s to connect with battery. If you pick this topic, you will be able to: Calculate the value of resistors for different LED’s Circuit diagrams Calculate the Forward Current of LED’s Calculate the Forward Voltage for different LED’s Circuits Connect LED’s in Series with batter Connect LED’s in Parallel with battery Connect LED’s in Series-Parallel Circuits Typical LED Symbol, Construction and Lead Identification. Click Image to enlarge Before we go in detail, we will try to get ride on below simple circuit, so that the other calculation will be easier to understand. Click Image to enlarge This is the Simplest LED Series circuit ever. Here, the supply voltage is V, LED Forward Voltage (VF) is 1.3 Volt and Forward Current (IF) is 10mA. Now the Value of resistor (which we will connect in Series with LED) for this circuit would be: Resistor Value = (Vsupply - VF)/ IF = (6 -1.3) / 10mA = 470 Ω Current draw = 20mA Resistor Power rating formula for this circuit Resistor Power Rating = IF2 x Resistor Value = (10mA) 2 x 470 Ω = 0.047W = 47mW But This is the minimum required resistor value to ensure that resistor will not overheat, so its recommended that to double the power rating of resistor that you have......

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...PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL 4.1.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTY * Density-7860/m3 * Melting point -1427 * Thermal conductivity – 63 4.1.2 CARBON CONTENT Low carbon (or) Mild steel – 0.15 to 0.45carbon 4.1.3 MECHANICAL PROPERTY * Elasticity * Ductility * Toughness * Weld ability In our design, screwed spindle have a main part hence the calculation are concentrated on it. 4.2 HYDRAULIC OIL SERVO68 Hydraulic oil ISO 32 | Mineral based hydraulic oil | Property | Value in metric unit | Value in US unit | Density at 60°F (15.6°C) | 0.868 *10³ | kg/m³ | 54.2 | lb/ft³ | Kinematic viscosity at 104°F (40°C) | 32.2 | CSt | 32.2 | cSt | Kinematic viscosity at 212°F (100°C) | 5.52 | CSt | 5.52 | cSt | Viscosity index | 108 | | 108 | | Flash point | 212 | ºC | 414 | ºF | Pour Point | -33 | ºC | -27 | ºF | Table no:1 4.3 SPECIFICATION * Reservoir : 100 mm length and 80mm diameter * Cylinder : 100 mm length and 60mm diameter * Ram : 170mm length and 40mm diameter * Piston : 42mm diameter * Pump : 14mm diameter 4.4 DESIGN CALCULATION 4.4.1 PRESSURE INTENSITY Diameter of the piston D = 42mm Area of the piston A = (π/4) * D2 = (π/4) * 422 = 1385.4 mm2 Force = 50000 KN (designed) Maximum pressure P = F/A = 50000/1385.4 = 36.09 N/mm2 4.4.2 CYLINDER DESIGN Hoop stress c =P*D/2t c – hoop stress P – Pressure intensify......

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...Mortgage Calculations Alisha Logue MAN 222 Instructor Alan Jones Sept. 26, 2013 Calculating a mortgage loan can be difficult. With the help of www.mortgage.com, they offer an online calculator to assist you. By using this tool you are able to plug in all the needed figures and find out the totals of taxes, interest, etc. One feature it also allows you to do is see totals with or without extra payments. (citigroup.com)Extra payments towards your loan's principal can substantially decrease the amount of interest you pay over the life of your loan. By paying extra amounts each month, you will be able to repay your loan much more quickly(2013). For a $225,000 home, the mortgage loan is $21,375. A term of 15 years with a 5% interest rate with no extra payments is going to be higher than having extra payments. With no extra payments added, it will take the whole term of 15 years to pay off the loan. Adding a $100 extra payment will take only eight years and two months. You save about $4364 in interest paid by adding an extra payment each month. Adding an extra payment a month, the taxes and insurance and the mortgage insurance would be the same if you did not have an extra payment. Taxes and insurance would run about $123 and the mortgage insurance $0. Between having an extra payment and not having one, the principal and interest is $100 difference. The principal and interest total is then $169 with no extra payment, $269 with an extra payment. Total......

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...£ 60 000 (ii) at the higher potential level indicated by the market research, subject to a cut in price of 20%; L Ltd: £ 32 000, M Ltd: £ 92 000 b) to explain why the use of a market price as the transfer price produces difficulties under the conditions outlined in (a) (ii) above; b) (i) L Ltd is not motivated to reduce selling price, even though the whole firm would be better off, since M Ltd’s profits increase and M Ltd has the needed capacity. (ii) L Ltd needs to have incentive for the change. - Can transfer pricing method be changed to provide the incentives? - Are there savings in selling and distribution to decrease the TP? - Would negotiation be effective? - How important is divisional autonomy? c) to recommend, with supporting calculations, what transfer prices you would propose. M Ltd has the capacity needed, so transfer price need to be > variable costs Assuming that we only change the price of the extra 8000 units: L Ltd’s profits increase if its variable costs are reduced more than £1. This is because selling 8000 units more reduced L ltd’s profits by £8000. M Ltd should be able to cover its variable costs to increase its profits. VC= £200/1000l = £0.2/l. One drum needs 25 l -> variable costs £5 per drum. £5 < TP < £8 where TP is the transfer price for the extra units. ...

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...Discuss the problems for a developing country of measuring its GNP and interpreting these statistics. Most countries use Gross National Product (GNP) as an indication of the economic welfare of a country. However, there are numerous problems involved when calculating the GNP. This is especially true in developing countries. The first problem that a developing country might encounter is the existing use of barter in the economy. Barter is not included in the proper records of economic activity. Therefore governments in developing countries find it hard to gather the statistics for the calculation of the GNP. It is even possible for countries to not even have proper records of economic activity. Furthermore, a developing country might lack the resources or skills required in order to collect the data needed. They may not be able to afford allocating skilled manpower and other resources to collect data. The government themselves may be incompetent or inefficient which may lead to inaccurate and unreliable measurements of the GNP. In developing countries, non-marketed goods and illegal goods may distort the values of the GNP. Unpaid services such as housewives, self-consumed output and payment in kind lead to the inaccuracy in the GNP. Since many developing countries depend on their primary sector heavily, such as farming, include goods that are kept for subsistence purposes. Such goods are not recorded in the GNP statistics. Even if the GNP statistics were......

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...$0 $418 $2,430 $972.10 $1,458.14 $440 -$7,848 $225 $3,539 $1,415.68 $2,123.52 $440 $2,564 $3,539 $1,415.68 $2,123.52 $440 $7,009 $1,390 $556.16 $834.24 $440 $2,843 $632 $252.80 $379.20 $440 $2,127 The Net Working Capital comes out to be $5,648 as for production to begin in 2010, the Net Working Capital comes in the year 2010. 3) Here, we need to calculate the unleveraged Beta for the three different companies, Micron Technologies, SanDisk Corporation and STEC Inc and then take the average of the three Beta Values to get the unleveraged Beta and then calculate the leveraged Beta using the formula as seen below to calculate the Industry Beta for the year 2010. Beta(Leveraged) = Beta(Unleveraged) * (1+ (1-T) * D/E) Calculation for Beta 1) For Micron Technologies Beta(Leveraged) = Beta(Unleveraged) * (1+ (1-T) * D/E) B(Leveraged) = 1.25 Tax Rate = 40 % Debt = 33 % Equity = 67 % 1.25 = B(Unleveraged) * (1+(1-0.4)*33/67) So, B(Unleveraged) = 0.964 2) For SanDisk Corporation B(Leveraged) = 1.36 Tax Rate = 40 % Debt = 19 % Equity = 81 % 1.36 = B(Unleveraged) * (1+(1-0.4)*19/81) So, B(Unleveraged) = 1.1795 3) For STEC Inc B(Leveraged) = 1 Tax Rate = 40 % Debt = 0 % Equity = 100 % 1 = B(Unleveraged) * (1+0.6*0/100) So, B(Unleveraged) = 1 Thus, the average of the above three Betas will give us the unleveraged Industry Beta B(Average)(Unleveraged) = (0.964+1.1795+1)/3 = 1.05 The Leveraged Beta for the market can be calculated using the formula as mentioned above......

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...BEAM CALCULATION Langkah 1 Bukalah software Solidworks, kemudian klik tab Office Product dan klik Solidworks Toolbox. Langkah 2 Setelah mengklik Solidworks Toolbox, kemudian akan muncul tool Structural Steel dan Beam Calculator. Klik Structural Steel dan kemudian buat konstruksi jembatan truss dengan memilih tipe serta ukuran dari baja yang akan digunakan. Langkah 3 Setelah memilih tipe dan ukuran baja, kemudian klik Sketch dan definisikan dimensinya menggunakan Smart Dimension,lalu klik Extrude Boss. Untuk konstruksi jembatan truss ini, digunakan skala 1:10. Langkah 4 Lanjutkan membuat rangka jembatan truss dengan langkah yang sama. Langkah 5 Setelah konstruksi jembatan sudah jadi, beri material baja karbon. Kemudian klik Beam Calculator pada tab Office Product. Beam Calculator dialog box menghasilkan perhitungan defleksi dan juga menghitung stress/tegangan pada cross section dari structural steel. Defleksi adalah perubahan bentuk pada balok dalam arah y akibat adanya pembebanan vertikal yang diberikan pada balok atau batang. Deformasi pada balok dapat dijelaskan berdasarkan defleksi balok dari posisi sebelumnya mengalami pembebanan. Langkah 6 Setelah Beam Calculator dialog box muncul, ganti unit menjadi Metric dan klik Y local axis. Langkah 7 Klik beam dan pilih jenis dari beam. Untuk rangka jembatan ini, dipilih beam jenis HP Beam 8x36. Kemudian klik Beam Calculator. Setelah jenis beam dipilih, maka secara otomatis, kolom untuk modulus......

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...PART 3: DOSAGE CALCULATIONS Please solve the dosage calculation, showing your work. Each question is worth 2 points for a total of 12 points for this section. “Ordered” refers to what strength/dosage the physician requested. “On hand” refers to what is available. 1. Ordered: 5 mg po tid On hand: 2 mg scored tablets • How many tablets do you need for each dose? • How many tablets do you need for a sixty day supply? 2. Ordered: 200 mg po q8h On hand: 110mg/5 mL • How many mL’s do you need for each dose? • How many mL’s do you need for a one-day supply? 3. Ordered: 2.5 g On hand: 50 mg/mL • How many mL’s do you need to give the ordered amount? 4. Ordered: 240cc (a cc is the same as a mL) On hand: oz • How many ounces do you need to give the ordered amount? PART 3: DOSAGE CALCULATIONS (CONTINUED) Please solve the dosage calculation, showing your work. Each questions is worth 2 points for a total of 8 points for this section. Amoxil 125 mg/ 2 mL comes in a 50 mL bottle (when reconstituted) 1. If the patient is to receive 250 mg, what will the dose be in mL? 2. How many teaspoon(s) is (are) equivalent to 250 mg? 3. If a patient is taking 250 mg of Amoxil every 6 hours, how many days should the bottle of medicine last? 4. If a patient is taking 500 mg of Amoxil every 6 hours, how many doses are provided by the bottle?...

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...Deepak K S Roll No: 2014201 Section D FM Assignment 2 Stock: NATCO Pharma ------------------------------------------------- Exchange: NSE Beta calculation using direct method: Covariance | = | 0.00492 | Variance | = | 0.00517 | Beta | = | 0.951 | Table: Regression Summary Output Regression Statistics | | | | | | | | Multiple R | 0.516 | | | | | | | | R Square | 0.266 | | | | | | | | Adjusted R^2 | 0.260 | | | | | | | | Standard Error | 0.114 | | | | | | | | Observations | 120 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ANOVA | | | | | | | | | | df | SS | MS | F | Significance F | | | | Regression | 1 | 0.556 | 0.556 | 42.785 | 1.643E-09 | | | | Residual | 118 | 1.534 | 0.013 | | | | | | Total | 119 | 2.090 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Coefficients | Standard Error | t Stat | P-value | Lower 95% | Upper 95% | Lower 95.0% | Upper 95.0% | Intercept | 0.0137 | 0.011 | 1.292 | 0.199 | -0.007 | 0.035 | -0.007 | 0.035 | X Variable 1 | 0.951 | 0.145 | 6.541 | 0.000 | 0.663 | 1.238 | 0.663 | 1.238 | Figure: Beta computation using trendline plot method Table: WACC Computation using CAPM method ------------------------------------------------- Average market return, Rm = 14.750% ------------------------------------------------- Risk free rate, Rf = 8.07% ------------------------------------------------- Cost of equity, Ke ...

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...measures used to safeguard the project. Therefore, “risk increases with hazard and decreases with safeguard” (Kerzner, 2009) References Bowman, E. (1983). Content Analysis of Annual Reports for Corporate Strategy and Risk. Institute for Advanced Studies in Management, 1-10. Berg, H. (2010, june). Risk Management: Procedures, Methods and Experiences. 1-95. Kerzner, H. (2009). Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Sceduling, and Controlling (10th. ed.). NewYork: John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Qualitygurus. (2013, May 31). Introduction to Risk Management. Retrieved from Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cp_XEhexcDw Theodore, L., & Dupont, R. (2012). Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment: Principles and Calculations. Florida: CRC Press....

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...Pediatric calculations Accurate doses are especially important in giving medications to infants and children because even small errors can be dangerous due to their small body size. Two methods are used to calculate pediatric dosages: According to the weight in kilograms (kg) According to the child's body surface area (BSA) Calculations based on body weight 1. The first step is to convert the child's body weight into kg. The formula is 2.2 lb. = 1 kg. 2. The second step is to calculate the medication dose. a. Calculate the daily dose b. Divide the daily dose by the number of doses to be administered. c. Use either the ratio-proportion or formula method to calculate the number of tablets/ capsules or volume to be administered with each dose. Example: A child weighing 76 lbs. is ordered to receive 150 mg of Clindamycin q6h. The pediatric drug handbook states the recommended dose is 8-20 mg/kg/day in four divided doses. The Clindamycin is supplied in 100 mg scored tablets. 1. What is the weight in kg? 76 lbs÷2.2kg/lb. = 34.5 kg 2. What is the safe total daily dose? Minimum: 8 mg/kg/day X 34.5 kg = 276 mg/day Maximum: 20 mg/kg/day X 34.5 kg = 690 mg/day 3. Is this a safe dose? 150 mg/dose X 4 doses/day = 600 mg/day Yes this is within the recommended safe range. 4. Calculate the number of tablets to give. 100 mg: 1 tablet = 150 mg: x (multiply means ......

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...The following carbon footprint calculation is based on my personal boundary that the amount consumed by myself. The amount consumed is calculated from February 2015 when I moved to the new apartment where I am living to February 2016 which is easier to calculate. Explanation of the calculation of carbon footprint The amount of emission of carbon dioxide can be calculated by the ISA-GHG calculator based on the dollar amount spent on individual activity. Generally, my weekly budget could be divided into three parts: rent, entertainment cost and food cost on supermarkets. Rent accounts for the largest proportion of it, followed by food on supermarkets and entertainment cost. Specifically, individual spending can be evidenced by the receipts and I having been recoding my weekly expense for a long time so they are all reliable sources for the carbon footprint calculation. Moreover, I am living in a shared house with my flatmates, the electricity bill, rent and water bill should be divided by the number of people living in the department to calculate an accurate number. The classification of GHG emission According to the classification of GHG emission, my daily activities can be divided into Scope 1, Scope 2 and Scope 3. Under the food section, I have the direct ownership of those food and vegetable so activities related to them are considered as Scope 1. Under the Housing section, my activity in the past year didn't get involved to natural gas and construction and......

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...CALCULATION EXERCICES To the LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS IN MEDICAL CHEMISTRY Edited by: Zoltán Matus Compiled by: Péter Jakus László Márk Anikó Takátsy Pécs, 2007 Table of content: Introduction 3 1. Stoichiometry I. Balancing equations 4 2. Stoichiometry II. Calculation exercises 9 3. The gaseous state 13 4. Concentrations of solutions 17 5. Calculations connected to titrimetry 28 6. Electrolytic dissociation 33 7. Dilute solutions 38 8. Hydrogen ion concentration, pH, buffers 44 9. Heterogeneous equilibria. Crystallisation, solubility product, partition coefficient 55 10. Thermochemistry 64 11. Electrochemistry 67 2 INTRODUCTION The chapter is devoted to helping the students practice the most important topics of General Chemistry. The order of the sections follows the schedule of the lectures and seminars, and their volume indicates the importance of the topic. Each section begins with a few solved problems. They represent the minimum requirement at the exam. The worked-out solutions are not the only ones. For an easier self-checking, the numerical results of the unsolved calculation exercises are given in parentheses after each question. Sources: 1.) Laboratory experiments in medical chemistry, ed. György Oszbach, Pécs, 1998. 2.) Villányi Attila: Ötösöm lesz kémiából, (6. ed.) Mőszaki Könyvkiadó, Budapest., 1999 3.) Charles E.......

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...increase in Mexican GDP. As we said above, Mexico spends MPIMX = 0.03 of any extra $1 income on foreign goods (in our example on American goods). So out of $1.587 billion increase in Mexican GDP, ΔXUS = MPIMX · $1.587 billion = 0.03 · $1.587 = $47.61 million will be spent in the US. This increase of spending in the US will start the multiplier effect. However, Americans also spend some fixe % of GDP on bying foreign goods (in our example, Mexican goods). Therefore, multiplier with imports in the US is MUS = 1/(1 - (MPCUS - MPIUS)) = 1/(1-(0.6 – 0.1)) = 2 So in the US ΔY* = MUS · ΔXUS = 2 · $47.61 million = $95.22 million c) Calculate the amount by which Mexican GDP grows as a result of the increase in the US GDP. We do exactly the same calculation as in b), only the role of two countries is reversed. US spends MPIUS = 0.1 of any extra $1 income on foreign goods (in our example on Mexican goods). So out of $95.22 million increase in American GDP, ΔXMX = MPIUS · $95.22 million = 0.1 · $95.22 million = $9.522 million will be spent in Mexico. This increase of spending in Mexico will start the multiplier effect. Remember that we have to use Mexican multiplier with imports now, calculated in a) So in Mexico ΔY** = MMX · ΔXMX = 1.587 · $9.522 million = $15.11 million The Multiplier with taxes Usually we assume that taxes are fixed. However, in reality most taxes depend on the income of people and firms. We can think of it as dependence of tax on GDP. Suppose we have the following......

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