Carbon Tax

In: Social Issues

Submitted By jmdejelo
Words 1865
Pages 8
A carbon tax is a tax imposed on the carbon content of fuels. It is a form of carbon pricing. Carbon taxes are a possible cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. From an economic outlook, carbon taxes are a type of Pigovian tax.They help to address the problem of emitters of greenhouse gases not face the full social costs of their actions. Carbon taxes can be a degenerating tax, in that it may directly or indirectly affect low-income groups disproportionately. The regressive impact of carbon taxes could be addressed by using tax revenues to favor low-income groups. A number of countries have implemented carbon taxes or energy taxes that are related to carbon content. But some are taxed on energy products and motor vehicles rather than on carbon dioxide directly.
In June 2010, Julia Gillard defeated Rudd in a leadership challenge thus becoming Prime Minister of Australia. Shortly afterwards she called a federal election. During the election campaign Gillard stated that she supported a price on carbon emissions and that she would prosecute the case for action for as long as she needed to win community support. However, she also indicated that she would not introduce carbon pricing until there was a sufficient consensus on the issue, and she specifically ruled out the introduction of a "carbon tax".(Paul Kelly and Dennis Shanahan, 2010)
When it was introduced on July 1, 2012 its primary goal is to reduce the country’s total emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Initially it is only the Australia’s first 500 highest polluting companies that were expected to pay a flat charge of $23 AUD per ton of CO2-e produced. Now I think the number of companies that are being taxed have increased. And this rate is estimated to change and likely to increase to 2.5 percent above inflation rate annually. The Australian government thought that it will be a solution…...

Similar Documents

Carbon Tax Integrated Marketing

...CARBON TAX INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION PLAN INTRODUCTION Carbon tax has elicited a lot of controversy in the past and also now by the Australian people, politicians and indeed all across the world. Australia is not the first country in the world to undertake this and many other countries have already made huge steps towards reducing their carbon output, and that includes developing nations like China. Countries have started this transformation to take advantage of the economic opportunities stemming from the next stage of global development that will be powered by clean energy many countries have taken up carbon pricing of which carbon tax is one of these. Carbon tax is a tax is an environmental tax that is levied on the amount of carbon that is contained by a certain fuel. Carbon is present in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline and other crude oil products and is released as carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a heat trapping gas which facilitates global warming. On the other hand other fuels such as wind and solar do not emit these heat entrapment gases thus are considered environment friendly as they do not lead to global warming. GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE The main reason for these carbon pricing methods such as carbon tax is to reduce the emission of green house gases such as carbon dioxide that cause environmental degradation through global warming. Australia has seen an increase of 0.9 ºC since 1950. We have observed changes to our...

Words: 3609 - Pages: 15

Carbon Tax

...美国、英国与中国中学生写作案例举隅 西北师大附中 李 静 1.美国:美国重视对学生的写作指导,例如2001年6月通过的美国麻萨诸塞州《英语语言艺术课程标准纲要》提出了语言学习的十条原则,其中第六条原则是:有效的英语语言艺术课程给学生提供针对阅读和写作的非常明确的技术指导。从这一原则可以看出美国写作教学的指导原则:提前给学生提供一些明确的技术指导是非常有效的,明确的指令特别有助于学生解决那些他们在作业中碰到的难题。该课程标准在写作说明部分明确指出:“为了把学生培育成写作的多面手,教师应当强调三方面的任务:首先要有拓展性写作练习;其次,多写命题的简短作文;再次,多进行随笔练习。” [i] 这种循序渐进的能力训练序列也是科学主义的表现。 比如“写一件有趣的往事”这样一篇作文,教材的指导如下: 内容要求:你在电话上和朋友说话时,感觉到你妈妈,或者弟弟、妹妹可能在偷听,你有过这样的经历吗?这种在电话里和朋友谈事情时不舒服的感觉,在通过写信和朋友的交流中就不会存在了。写信时你有时间慢慢讨论属于你和朋友的私事。假如你最好的朋友刚搬到另一个城市,感到很孤独,而且想家,那么写封信给他/她,讲讲你的有趣经历,难道还有比这更好的办法吗?在信中,生动地描绘一件好笑的经历,就像这个单元中的作家描写小说中人物有趣的恶作剧一样。 任务:写一段有趣的往事。 目的:娱乐。 读者:生活在另一个城市的朋友。 写作前 ⑴哪些事真的很滑稽可笑?再看一下本单元的故事,仔细阅读写有一系列幽默事件的一篇故事。例如,你有可能会选择伊萨克·巴士韦斯·辛格的《我迷路的那天》,仔细阅读,然后想一想,作者是如何描写这些事情的?为什么很有趣? ⑵勾画情景。记住,你朋友也许并不指望你回答事情是如何发生的这类问题,他也可能只要你简单地按时间顺序描述当时的情景。划一条表示时间的长线,将发生的事情按先后顺序排列。 学生示例: 晚饭妈妈让我吃肉糕→我用叉子叉起肉糕→妈妈起身去接电话→我把肉糕胡乱塞进袜子后装在我抽屉里→妈妈两个星期找到袜子 初稿 ⑴以意想不到的话开头。吸引你朋友注意力的最好的方法之一,就是用有趣的或者令人深思的一句话或一个问题开始。 学生示范:有些东西你不想吃,你家又没有养狗,那么最好的处理方法是什么呢?听着,让我来教你一个非常简单的方法,最起码我认为那是最简单的! ⑵补漏洞。在信中加上幽默的对话,富有色彩的描述、富有想像力的语言。想一想如何尽可能生动地描写细节。不要在一个词或一个句子上花太多精力,而要将整个事情流利地描述出来。记住这是一篇非正式的往事描写,而不是正式的报告。 ⑶制造悬念。与幽默故事相关的一个重要因素是意外。你写信的目的是让你朋友开心,所以不要在一开始就说出结果而扫了兴致,而是将你的朋友一点点引入高潮,引起悬念,使他急于知道下文。 ⑷信的结束内容。讲完故事后,问几个问题,例如他/她对这件事有什么看法?他/她在类似的情况下会怎么办?通过提问,你表现出很在意朋友的意见和反应,及经常联络的愿望。 修改和校对 ⑴读一读自己的文章。但是不要在写完后马上就读,而是将写好的文章放一两天,然后假设你刚收到这封信,思考下列问题:开头的句子吸引你的注意力吗?事情的过程有没有按逻辑安排?这件事有趣、幽默吗? ⑵校阅。和正式的文章不一样,私人信件的句子可以用断句、缩约式及不规范的标点符号。...

Words: 673 - Pages: 3

Carbon Strategies

...Corporate Carbon Strategies Threats and opportunities arising from the new energy imperative Reference Code: BI00036-019 Publication Date: March 2011 1 About the authors Professor Merlin Stone Merlin is Head of Research at The Customer Framework. He is author or co-author of many articles and thirty books and also on the editorial advisory boards of several academic journals. He has a first class honors degree and doctorate in economics from Sussex University, UK. In parallel to his business career, he has also pursued a full academic career, holding senior posts at various universities. He is now a visiting professor at De Montfort, Oxford Brookes and Portsmouth Universities, teaches economics for the Open University and marketing for Exeter University. Jane Fae Ozimek The author is a writer and researcher in the areas of IT, Business and the Law. Jane is currently editor of the Journal of Database Marketing and has previously published works on the use of statistics in business and Marketing Resource Management. Recent research papers include publications on the misuse of security protocols by major corporations, and a re-evaluation of the Loyalty Ladder concept in marketing theory. Jane was also co-author of the recently published Carbon Trading and the Effect of the Copenhagen Agreement (published by Business Insights, 2010). 2 Disclaimer Copyright © 2011 Business Insights Ltd This report is published by Business Insights (the Publisher). This......

Words: 48747 - Pages: 195

Carbon Tax: the Australian Government Is Introducing a Carbon Tax and Your Advertising Company Has Been Contacted to Develop an Imc Campaign

...MRKT 19030 Promtions Management Topic Carbon Tax: the Australian Government is introducing a carbon tax and your advertising company has been contacted to develop an IMC campaign Develop an IMC plan for the federal government of Australia to promote its new Carbon Tax. The government aims to reduce the amount of misinformation surrounding the implementation of the new tax and therefore has asked your firm to create an awareness campaign aimed at increasing awareness of t actual costs and benefits of the tax Assessment Task As the IMC Director of your fictitious advertising firm, your task is to develop an IMC plan to present to the federal government. It will be important you understand the political environment, and history surrounding the implementation of the new carbon tax. Your introduction should provide background information to the new tax and should be somewhat brief. You must then undertake a review of the literature related to global warming, climate change and other factors that have lead to the introduction of the new tax. You then are required to identify which market segments your campaign will target. Next you must identify at least 3-5 communication objectives such as developing brand awareness; or promoting product and company knowledge; influencing interest or consumer attitudes; developing the product’s image; or influencing the purchase intention etc. (Chapter 4& 7 of Belch, Belch, Kerr & Powell). Once you have identified your......

Words: 924 - Pages: 4

Carbon Footprint

...The term ‘carbon footprint’ has become tremendously popular over the last few years and is now in widespread use across the media. With climate change high up on the political and corporate agenda, carbon footprint calculations are in strong demand. Numerous approaches have been proposed to provide estimates, ranging from basic online calculators to sophisticated life-cycle analysis or input-output-based methods and tools. Despite its ubiquitous use however, there is an apparent lack of academic definitions of what exactly a ‘carbon footprint’ is meant to be. The scientific literature is surprisingly void of clarifications, despite the fact that countless studies in energy and ecological economics that could have claimed to measure a ‘carbon footprint’ have been published over decades. This report explores the apparent discrepancy between public and academic use of the term ‘carbon footprint’ and suggests a scientific definition based on commonly accepted accounting principles and modelling approaches. It addresses methodological question such as system boundaries, completeness, comprehensiveness, units and robustness of the indicator. >>> Processes causing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefit humans by providing consumer goods and services. This benefit, and hence the responsibility for emissions, varies by purpose or consumption category and is unevenly distributed across and within countries. We quantify greenhouse gas emissions associated with the final consumption...

Words: 2231 - Pages: 9

Carbon Accounting

...Administration (EMBA) course requirement, we are assigned the topic “Carbon Accounting” by our course teacher for accomplishing our report. 1.2 Objectives of the report ➢ To attain the skill of report writing. ➢ To achieve deep knowledge about Carbon Accounting. ➢ To fulfill the partial requirement of our course of Accounting for Managers. 1.3 Methodology of the report This study was a descriptive research where we have been analyzed mainly secondary data to understand the Carbon Accounting and its application. All the data has gathered for report writing during term. Information collected to furnish this report is mainly from secondary in nature such as related books, journals, periodicals and Websites etc. 1.4 Limitations of the report We have tried our level best to find out the opportunity of work for overcoming the limitation but due to shortage of time, official compulsion and lack of availability of required data it was not possible to collect huge information about the topic. Other limitation is our report is mostly text based. 1.5 What is Carbon Accounting? Carbon accounting refers generally to processes undertaken to "measure" amounts of carbon dioxide equivalents emitted by an entity. It is used by nation states, corporations and individuals. It is the process of measuring, monitoring, benchmarking and reporting an organization Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a defined reporting period. Carbon Accounting is not is a greener form of financial......

Words: 5831 - Pages: 24

Carbon Footprinting

...CARBON FOOTPRINTS OF STUDENTS OF SCMS-UG, PUNE Name : Amogh Koranmath Class : TY -C PRN No: 11020621035 INTRODUCTION What is Carbon Footprint A carbon footprint is defined as the total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). In other words: When you drive a car, the engine burns fuel which creates a certain amount of CO2, depending on its fuel consumption and the driving distance. (CO2 is the chemical symbol for carbon dioxide). When you heat your house with oil, gas or coal, then you also generate CO2. Even if you heat your house with electricity, the generation of the electrical power may also have emitted a certain amount of CO2. When you buy food and goods, the production of the food and goods also emitted some quantities of CO2. Your carbon footprint is the sum of all emissions of CO2 (carbon dioxide), which were induced by your activities in a given time frame. Usually a carbon footprint is calculated for the time period of a year. A carbon footprint has historically been defined by Championne as "the total sets of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person. Greenhouse gases can be emitted through transport, land clearance, and the production and consumption of food, fuels, manufactured goods, materials, wood, roads, buildings, and services. For simplicity of reporting, it is often expressed in......

Words: 910 - Pages: 4

Carbon Lab

...DATA TABLES: CARBON CYCLE LESSON 1 Lesson 1: Step 1 | Gaseous Carbon | Ocean Water | Fossil Fuels | Biosphere Gaseous Carbon | To Year | Atmosphere | Ocean Surface | Deep Ocean | Oil and Gas | Coal | Soil | Terrestrial Plants | 2000 | 375ppm | 1000 | 38000 | 500 | 2000 | 2000 | 700 | 2050 | 446ppm | 1074 | 38189 | 168 | 1818 | 2037 | 752 | 2100 | 754ppm | 1197 | 38699 | 0 | 676 | 2098 | 833 | Lesson 1:Step 2 | Total Carbon Emissions | Gaseous Carbon | Ocean Water | Fossil Fuels | Biosphere Gaseous Carbon | To Year | Smokestack | Atmosphere | Ocean Surface | Deep Ocean | Oil and Gas | Coal | Soil | Terrestrial Plants | 2000 | 0 | 371ppm | 1000 | 38000 | 500 | 2000 | 2000 | 700 | 2010 | 75 | 382ppm | 1031 | 38019 | 452 | 1974 | 2004 | 714 | 2020 | 87 | 398ppm | 1039 | 38049 | 396 | 1943 | 2012 | 724 | 2030 | 101 | 418ppm | 1049 | 38087 | 331 | 1907 | 2020 | 733 | 2040 | 117 | 440ppm | 1061 | 38133 | 255 | 1866 | 2029 | 742 | 2050 | 136 | 466ppm | 1074 | 38189 | 168 | 1818 | 2037 | 752 | 2060 | 157 | 497ppm | 1089 | 38255 | 66 | 1762 | 2046 | 763 | 2070 | 204 | 542ppm | 1108 | 38334 | 0 | 1623 | 2056 | 775 | 2080 | 270 | 604ppm | 1136 | 38433 | 0 | 1353 | 2068 | 792 | 2090 | 313 | 674ppm | 1165 | 38554 | 0 | 1040 | 2082 | 811 | 2100 | 364 | 754ppm | 1197 | 38699 | 0 | 676 | 2098 | 833 | Responses to questions | 1.If only one half of the flora in the world existed in 2100 (perhaps due to deforestation), what do youpredict the......

Words: 579 - Pages: 3

The Carbon

...starting. Through chaos life would form in so many years no one could count them. It would take a billion men a trillion years to hope to know when the first particles came over. This occurrence brought the pure substance, the first substance, the Great Carbon Essence. The Pure Carbon Essence seeped into our universe and soon there was no more space, so the universe moved. Expansion started as with any known civilization. Soon the Great Carbon Essence had moved trillions of miles and were content, but it was not so forever. For nothing good can stay. Particles were getting bunched, many wanted more space to move free. The universe was to slow. Some Essence took initiative and brought about a change. This was the beginning of change. Some of the Pure Essence exchanged with each other their innards and changed. They slowly began becoming tainted. Soon elements off all kinds formed and the Great Carbon Essence did away with them. There was an attempt to banish them through the cracks in the universe, into the void. These attempts ceased when the tainted became too many and soon the Great Carbon Essence dictated that if change be coming it had better be for a greater good. The tainted essences came together with the Great Carbon Essence and formation began. Particles came together, fused with one another, bonded. Clouds of dust and new gases expanded throughout our universe, all the while pushing outward. The boundaries of our universe continued to expand and these clouds......

Words: 712 - Pages: 3


...The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency. suggest a partial closure of stomata1—small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange—to maintain a nearconstant concentration ofCO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. photosynthesis indicates that increasing atmospheric CO2 should lead to an increase in both photosynthetic uptake and water-use efficiency4—that is, the ‘CO2 fertilization effect’. These include: climate change; nitrogen deposition and accumulation; changes in leaf area, canopy height, surface roughness and the coupling of the canopy to the atmosphere; and long-term instrument drift. This analysis shows that the general trend and magnitude of the increase inWei is independent of recent changes in environmental factors. The lack of a consistent trend in climatic forcing across all sites (with the exception of vapour pressure deficit, D) further suggests that changes in climatic drivers are not responsible for the consistent increase in Wei. potential drivers of the observed changes in Wei, the only driver that is changing sufficiently and consistently through time at all sites is atmospheric CO2. The direct tradeoff between water loss and carbon uptake through the stomata—equations (1) and (2)—means that, as water-use efficiency increases, either evapotranspiration (Ee) decreases or gross photosynthetic carbon uptake increases, or both occur simultaneously. balance.......

Words: 287 - Pages: 2

Carbon Taxing

...In my opinion, the imposition of a “Carbon Tax” would not be the most effective way to reduce the fossil fuels. There has been recent efforts taken to reduce the greenhouse gases produced by fossil fuels being burned. An increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is the result of the combustion of fossil fuels. When CO2 and H2O combine, a weak acid, H2CO3, is formed (CO2 + H2O -> H2CO3). Many suggest that carbon taxing is an effective way to reduce this from happening. “A carbon tax is an environmental tax applied to the burning of fossil fuels in order to discourage the production of greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide.”(Eco Life). There are many scientist that believe this is a very effective way to reduce fossil fuel use. Others disagree with the idea. Carbon taxes are taxes on eight five percent of the energy we use, are not practical on an economic level, and will not directly affect climate change. First, carbon taxing is placing a tax on eighty five percent of the energy we use every day. “A majority of American’s energy needs come from carbon-emitting conventional fuels…” (The Daily Signal). The use of fossil fuels power our nation. Why would one want to take away the energy that runs our country? Replacing this energy would be very challenging. Realistically, the low-carbon substitute technology simply does not exist. “The technologies to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emission from fossil fuels, however, are decades away and extremely......

Words: 576 - Pages: 3


...Carbon Emissions Josie Williams Bethel University November 10, 2015 Instructor: Dr. Red Prudhon Abstract Our nation has taken a very important step in slowing the making and use of ozone-destroying chemicals. Some simple things the everyday Americans can do to prevent future damage to the ozone layer and better use or conservation of carbon emissions is to become more educated on how to better make use of the chemicals already present in the environment and not produce more harmful chemicals. There are some simple measures that can be taken by just influencing the ability of natural cures, like rain forest, to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. Carbon Emissions Carbon emissions is one of the main greenhouse gases, it is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally emitted from the earth’s surface, and through human function, respiration, and plant function, photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide is release when we exhale and is used by plants as necessary part of photosynthesis, which produces glucose, carbohydrate that must be consumed by humans in order to have energy. Also from these natural processes, carbon dioxide is also emitted through the combustion or burning of fossil fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gas. This happens when vehicles are driven as well as when power plants and industrial plants are utilized. Combustion also called burning......

Words: 975 - Pages: 4

Carbon Accounting

...What is carbon accounting? Carbon accounting is measuring, monitoring, benchmarking and reporting an organizations green house gas emission in a given accounting period. Carbon Accounting is not is a greener form of financial accounting. How do you perform Carbon Accounting? First the type and amount of emissions for which the business is responsible is identified and calculated for tCO²-e (tonnes of CO² or equivalent) using internationally recognised methods. The result is a detailed account or inventory of a Businesses Emissions for a defined period in time. This inventory is then used in reporting emissions internally and recommending possible solutions for reduction of the business exposure to the cost of emissions. We simplify what can be a complex and involved process. * We Collect and Measure your Carbon Footprint using internationally recognised data collection and emissions data calculation standards from the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG), the latest version of the National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors released by the Department of Climate Change and other reputable Australian and International sources. The Carbon and Carbon Equivalent Emissions are then reported with relevant business indicators which can be easily understood. * We Monitor and Report Carbon Emissions across an entire enterprise or supply chain and report those emissions for compliance, analysis and business forecasting. * We recommend Mitigation Strategies to Reduce Carbon Emissions...

Words: 765 - Pages: 4

Carbon Trading Within Eu

...Carbon Emissions Trading Market: Opportunities and Challenges in Creating A Market to Reach The Political Goal Authors: Class: Date: Module: Lecturer Institute Doreen K., Hari M., Lamberte I., MBAPT2011 26 March 2012 Managerial Economics The Hague University - Confidential This document is confidential. Neither the document nor any of the information contained in this document may be reproduced or disclosed to any parties without the written permission of the authors. Introduction Climate change is widely known to be the most important environmental problem for humankind on this Earth. As we know there is a limit with our atmosphere and the world’s economies are connected through trade and capital flows, and based on this situation, an international cooperation to control greenhouse gases is essential. Can each individual be relied upon to make decisions that influence the Earth’s carbon-dioxide concentration in the social interest? Must governments adjust the incentives we face so that our self-interested choices are also in the social interest? How can governments adjust the incentives? Parkin (2011) has argued that sometimes it is possible to reduce the inefficiency arising from an external cost by establishing a property right where one does not currently exist. Property rights are legally established titles to the ownership, use, and disposal of factors of production and goods and services that are enforceable in the courts. Since the Kyoto Protocol1 was......

Words: 2485 - Pages: 10

Carbon Tax Mining

...Faculty of Science and Engineering Department of Mining and Engineering and Mine Surveying Western Australia School of Mines 12585 - Mine Planning 532 Research Paper 1 – Mine Planning Process and the Carbon Tax Due Date : Friday 19-8-2011 Word Count: 2470 Abstract On 15 December 2008, the Federal Government launched its 2020 target for greenhouse gas emissions and its White Paper on the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) as the start of the policy and legislation process. The mining sector in Australia has been cited as being a major contributor to greenhouse gases. The introduction of the CPRS means carbon emissions of a mining project should be considered from the initial stages of mine planning. The traditional approach to mine planning involves consideration of technical and economic data as inputs to the process. This paper considers the effect of the CPRS on various technical and economic factors related to the mine planning process. The results of this paper imply that the introduction of the CPRS makes it is imperative for mining companies to assess the impact of carbon emissions on a mining project during mine planning. Introduction Climate change has become an increasingly topical issue in recent times. Mounting scientific evidence suggests that human activities are causing a buildup of greenhouse gases and that this in turn is causing changes to the world’s climate (Gregorczu, 1999). Further complicating the issue, there are economic costs,......

Words: 2496 - Pages: 10