Child Abuse - Past and Present

In: Social Issues

Submitted By dnthurst
Words 3660
Pages 15
Child Sexual Abuse – Past, Present and Future
Donna Hurst
University of the Cumberlands
HSOL 331
April 13, 2013

ABSTRACT This paper explores the issue of child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse of a child has become a major social issue in not only the United States but the entire world. It is imperative that society learns all they can about this issue. As a whole, society needs to discover the indicators of sexual abuse, the appropriate ways to report suspected abuse and how to help those that have been abused so they are not continually victimized by their past.
This paper will explore child abuse and child sexual abuse in six parts. The first part will begin with the earliest references of child abuse as a whole. The second part will continue on to the emergence of the issue of child abuse on the social and political scene. The third part of this paper will show when and how sexual abuse first became recognized as part of the child abuse issue. The fourth part of this paper will move into the effects of child sexual abuse. The fifth part will cover child sexual abuse intervention methods and the sixth part will focus on the treatments available to help victims in the present as well as the future.

PART ONE: CHILD ABUSE’S PAST
In the ancient world, infanticide was common practice in nearly all cultures. Children were killed at birth if they did not seem fit. Fathers were permitted to kill their newborns if they deemed the child was abnormal. Children that showed signs of being physically handicapped were killed by order of the tribal elders by leaving the child out exposed to the elements. Midwives were instructed by physicians to kill children that were unfit. After the child was born, they’d examine the infant and if it wasn’t what they considered “normal,” the child was simply gotten rid of. Some of the worst instances of infanticide are depicted in…...

Similar Documents

Child Abuse

...Child abuse versus Discipline CJ 210 October 1, 2012 Abstract This paper will identify the difference between abuse and discipline. The effective ways to teach our children and the negative ways in which people think discipline can be tied into abuse. The thin line between abuse and discipline and how some people may think it is justified. Child abuse versus Discipline What is child abuse? Under the federal law any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical, or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation; or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm(New World Encyclopedia 2012) . The abuse of children is more than just broken bones even though physical abuse is a concern you also have different types of abuse. There is Neglect, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and physical and they differ from discipline. Discipline is the training that a parent or guardian gives a child so that he or she can act or react to a situation in life in a specific way (education 2012). It builds character in the child and shows them the way they should carry themselves when in society. Training children mental improvement and morally is another way discipline helps keeps in good way. Using physical tactics for example beating, spankings, punches and slaps are common things people think of when you say discipline in a physical way however, if the child doesn’t learn a lesson then it isn’t......

Words: 2685 - Pages: 11

Child Abuse

... Child abuse on the rise, study shows By Kathryn Crandall[->17] contributing reporter Tuesday, October 9, 2012 · Share[->18] Tweet Discuss According to a recent study, child abuse is on the rise. Yale School of Medicine professor of pediatrics John Leventhal and Julie Gaither GRD ’14 have determined that cases of child abuse may have increased in the past decade. The results of their study, which was published in the November issue of the journal “Pediatrics,” show a 4.9 percent escalation in child abuse cases from 1997 to 2009. These results conflict with the data from an earlier study conducted by University of New Hampshire sociology professor David Finkelhor, which indicated a 55 percent decrease in instances of physical abuse of children in the United States from 1992 to 2009. Alice Forrester, executive director of the Clifford W. Beers Clinic child and family advocacy center, said she was “not surprised” by Leventhal’s results. Given the current state of the economy, Forrester said, many families face economic pressures, which can lead to yelling and domestic violence. The studies completed by Leventhal and Finkelhor differ in several ways, most notably in their data collection techniques. Finkelhor considered “substantiated cases of physical abuse” -— cases which have undergone legal review by a child protective services commissioner and are registered in the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect data system — while......

Words: 861 - Pages: 4

Child Abuse

...Child Abuse will the Cycle End The Crime: Florida State Statute Chapter 827 being the format of child abuse with the definitions and basic crimes, child abuse is a much deeper subject. The criminal side of child abuse in basic definition states, intentional infliction of physical or mental injury upon a child. The statute goes further to define the act or encouragement of someone to perform it is the same. Advising that in a malicious state in which the acts caused the child unjustified pain or injury. Also, what need to be addressed is that abuse can be that of mental injury to the intellectual and/or psychological capacity of the child, which would affect the child's normal range of performance. Now that a basic understanding of what the legal side advises is child abuse let’s look at possible causes. Possible Causes: With child abuse it can be a learned behavior, pasted from generation to generation. I do not always continue in the same conduction as it was on the offender, who at one point was the victim. Abuse will modify from behavior in many different ways, such as more or could be less violent. Abuse can also turn away from the physical side and become more of a mental abuse. This can also vary from child to child. It is a chain, but it can be broken, with help and a willingness to change. With families today being more from broken, single parent homes, some with low income and experiencing financial difficulty with the economy. Addition pressures......

Words: 701 - Pages: 3

Child Abuse

...Child Abuse Child abuse has many forms; one of its most common forms is sexual abuse. This form is when an adult, either a loved one or a complete stranger, takes advantage of a weak child in order to satisfy his own sexual needs. It can be either physical or visual and that is by forcing him/her to watch pornography. Child sexual abuse has been scattering all over the world. Every day, cases of child sexual abuse are reported to authorities vastly. In North America, 20 to 30% of men and women were sexually abused as kids, (Whealin, 2007). Some people, all around the universe, do not know the effects of it and what it causes for the next generation. However, those effects can be prevented easily yet patiently. Those ways are awareness, rationalism, and therapy. First, awareness plays an essential role in preventing CSA. Parents, acting as abusers, must be aware of the fact that what they’re doing might not only affect the child’s personality, but also affect the way he/she will react in certain incidents in the future. The child, not knowing right from wrong, will perform the same actions his/her parents did and will cause trouble for both himself/herself and others. Eventually, the abused child will get into trouble such as rape and the most common which is teenage pregnancy, Ethiop (1998). With time, 60% of teens that have been sexually abused, became pregnant (Berglas, Brindis, and Cohen, pg.16). Most teens, whichever boys or girls have at least gotten pregnant or......

Words: 1506 - Pages: 7

Child Abuse

...Running Head: EXAMINING CHILD ABUSE & FOSTER CARE Examining Different Types of Child Abuse and the Effects of Foster Care Kelsey D. Hill Northeast Alabama Community College Abstract All children have the right to live in an environment free from abuse and neglect. According to Muda & Alwi (2012), “The safety of children is the paramount concern that must guide child protection efforts”. There are four main types of abuse: Physical, sexual, emotional, and neglect. Physical abuse and emotional abuse are similar and different in many ways. Physical abuse can be seen on the outside of a child, while emotional abuse is more of a mental abuse and can harm a child majorly. This paper examines abuse and factors that may help children who are abused. Examining Different Types of Child Abuse and the Effects of Foster Care There are several different types of abuse that undeniably occur in children. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are the four main forms of abuse. Abuse can physically and mentally abuse a person permanently. A child’s development stage is the most crucial and needs serious attention from parents as well as teachers in order to assure their growth into healthy and mature adults (Noh & Wan, 2012). One of the factors that may hamper a child’s growth is child abuse. It could cause serious emotional effects to a child throughout their lifetime. Although some children would disagree, foster care and human resources......

Words: 1626 - Pages: 7

Child Abuse

...Child Abuse and Neglect 29 30 Dimensions and Critical Issues of Child Maltreatment in the African American Community: Causation, Consequences, and Prospects Presenter: Respondent: Joyce N. Thomas, R.N., M.P.H. Robert Pierce, Ph.D. Introduction African Americans, the largest minority population in the United States, suffer disproportionately from preventable diseases and deaths—(Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health, 1994). This statement from the Office of Minority Health not only captures the tragic problem of health related issues of African Americans, it also applies to the social welfare problems of these children and their families. Each year over 2,000 children die at the hands of their parents or caretakers (U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1995). Abuse and neglect in the home are considered one of the leading causes of death for children four years of age and younger and the largest number of child abuse fatalities is due to severe head trauma. Homicide statistics are only part of the grim reality, with near–fatal abuse and neglect accounting for more than 18,000 permanently disabled children, and approximately 142,000 serious injuries (Baladerian, 1991). Findings from the report, A Nation’s Shame: Fatal Child Abuse and Neglect in the United States, indicate that African Americans are overrepresented in both fatalities and near–fatal injuries (U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1995). Research shows that...

Words: 8401 - Pages: 34

Child Abuse

...Child Abuse Child abuse is one of the common threats posed during child development. There are multiple types of child abuse such as physical, emotional, verbal and neglect (Santrock, 2013). Studies show child abuse recognized more in economically developed countries than in developing countries. Children, however, have been beaten and abandoned for many thousands of years, based primarily on the belief that children are the property of their parents. Children have always been susceptible to abuse by their parents or other adults for many centuries because laws failed to protect them. In earlier years civilizations usually abandoned deformed or unwanted children. That was past; now, the biggest issue is to combat child abuse and there are many options deployed by the U.S government to protect children right against abuse. In the thirteenth-century both children and parents thought of beatings as in the child's best interest. Children were also beaten by their teachers. In the fourteenth through sixteenth centuries child abuse was still common. However, there was decrease of abuse in wealthy communities. Later in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century fathers commonly placed their children in internships to provide cheap labor. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries this tradition continued into the early years of the United States. (THE HISTORY OF CHILD ABUSE , 2013) Child abuse first captured the nation's attention with an eight-year-old orphan......

Words: 1534 - Pages: 7

Child Abuse

...Child Abuse Child abuse is any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm. Sexual abuse or exploitation: or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm. Physical abuse is nonaccidental physical injury ranging from minor bruises to severe fractures or death. As a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, shaking, throwing, stabbing, choking, hitting with a hand, stick, strap, or other object, burning, or otherwise harming a child, that is inflicted by a parent caregiver, or other person who has responsibility for the child. Such injury is considered abuse regardless of whether the caregiver intended to hurt the child. Physical discipline, such as spanking or paddling, is not considered abuse as long as it is reasonable and causes no bodily injury to the child. Neglect is the failure of a parent, guardian, or other caregiver to provide for a child’s basic needs. Neglect may be physical, medical, emotional and educational. Sometimes cultural values, the standards of care in the community, and poverty may contribute to maltreatment, indicating the family need of information or assistance. When a family fails to use information and resources, and the child’s health or safety is at risk, then child welfare intervention may be required. In addition, many States provide an exception to the definition of neglect for parents who choose not to seek medical......

Words: 1022 - Pages: 5

Child Abuse

...Child Abuse - A Hidden Epidemic in America There is a well-known but grossly underreported crime that is occurring daily, not only abroad, but right here in the United States as well. This crime not only affects a person at the time of the event, but for a lifetime. Although there are better attempts being made to further understand its diversity and complexity, the question still lies, is enough being done to control and prevent it from happening. This crime is child exploitation and abuse. Though it seems absurd to most, it is certainly happening worldwide and there is documented evidence that will be explored in this research paper. By examining this documented evidence I will try to determine the roots and causes of this despicable crime and uncover some avenues and characteristics that lead to its continued behavior. I hope to combine my sources to paint a picture of the epidemic of child abuse today and throughout history in America. I hope to examine the risks factors for child abuse and identify ways to educate parents, child care providers, educators and any other persons who may come into contact with our most vulnerable citizens, our children, on how we can prevent child abuse from occurring in the future. The federal government defines child abuse and neglect, at a minimum, any recent act or failure to act of the part of a parent or caretaker, which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, or an act or......

Words: 3526 - Pages: 15

Child Abuse

...writing. Regional working group members of Save the Children Sweden - Denmark (SCSD) in the respective countries took the responsibility for identifying and contacting organisations and individuals who are working to combat CSA, particularly those providing psychosocial support to children affected by abuse. A total of 34 organisations and individuals were met. Six days were spent in each country, except in Afghanistan, where only three days were spent. The six locations were Peshawar, Islamabad and Karachi. Organisations met included those working on child sexual exploitation and sexual health, and those working with communities of street children, MSM (men who have sex with men), and trafficked women and girls. Many groups could not be visited due to time limitations. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs), university psychology departments, community-based organisations (CBOs), international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and donor agencies, as well as independent research consultants and a theatre animator | | | were amongst the contacts met. Interviews were held | | | with those at management level, heads of organisations, | | | coordinators of child protection units, trainers, | | | programme officers, field workers, therapists and | | | counsellors. Wherever possible, counsellors, therapists | | | and caregivers working directly with children were | | | interviewed. | 1 | | | | | Objectives The objectives were......

Words: 9700 - Pages: 39

Child Abuse

...individual. Child abuse is not a pretty sight at all. I could never see myself going through such horror, and im glad I never had to. There is a big difference between discipline and violence. From the adults point of view it may not even be any of those reasons. Some adults don’t even seem to realize why they are doing such things to their child. It may be because of alcohol, or past problems, or maybe even just a bad day. It isn’t right though and it doesn’t justify what these adults are doing to these kids. From a symbolic perspective the adult may not even recognize what they are doing because it may have happened to them before. The adult may be looking up to a past relative who treated them the same way which has happen before. Adults may believe that they are indeed treating their kids the right way because those are their beliefs. Those beliefs then go on to a young child who grows up and then starts the process all over again. On the other hand that kid may grow up and end up on drugs, or depressed, and maybe even homeless. All because of a parent that can’t control themselves and believes that what they have to do. Physically or emotionally no child should be abused based on an adults anger and beliefs. Not from any perspective. Children will feel like they can’t talk to anyone because of abuse, and it will cause things like suicide and a lot of depression. The symbolic interactionist theory shows that child abuse can really screw up a childs life.......

Words: 510 - Pages: 3

Child Abuse

...Child Abuse There is no other crime more emotionally laden than those involving children. Police officers and investigators speak about the intense associated with those cases. Sometimes these people who are involved in crimes against children have to go therapy because of the severity of the case. Unfortunately, incidents of crime against children are increasing dramatically every year. Every year thousands of children become victims of crime, whether it’s through kidnappings, violent attacks, sexual abuse, or online predators. Child abuse has a lengthy history. Children have been subject to abuse by their parents or other adults since presumably the beginning of time. For many centuries laws failed to protect children from abuse. Children under English common law were considered the property of their fathers, as women were considered property of their husbands, until the late 1800s. American colonists in the 16th and 17th centuries carried the tradition of children being property of their fathers to the early years of the United States. In the early 1870s, child abuse captured the nation's attention with news that an 8 year old orphan named Mary Ellen Wilson was suffering daily whippings and beatings at her foster home. With no organization in existence to protect abused children, the orphan's plight fell to attorneys for the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). These attorneys argued that laws protecting animals from abuse should not be......

Words: 3514 - Pages: 15

Child Abuse

...Child abuse Child abuse is a global problem that is deeply rooted in cultural, economic and social practices. It is a state of emotional, physical, economic and sexual maltreatment meted out to a person below the age of eighteen and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. However, in India, as in many other countries, there has been no understanding of the extent, magnitude and trends of the problem. The growing complexities of life and the dramatic changes brought about by socio-economic transitions in India have played a major role in increasing the vulnerability of children to various and newer forms of abuse. Child abuse has serious physical and psycho-social consequences which adversely affect the health and overall well-being of a child. 1. CHILD ABUSE – BASIC DEFINITIONS “Child abuse or maltreatment constitutes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power”. (World Health Organization) "Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker, which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation, or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm" (The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act – CAPTA) “Child abuse is a very complex and......

Words: 5837 - Pages: 24

Child Abuse

...Child Abuse in the U.S.A Jennifer Bhikarry Barry University Sandra ROBERTS, Ph.D. Barry University Pembroke Pines, FL 33025 ADM 535: Applied Research Methodologies October 10th, 2011 Child abuse in the U.S.A I – INTRODUCTION Introduction Statement of the Problem: Purpose of the study Research questions II- REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A - AN ADMINISTRATIVE NIGHTMARE, Deel, (1991) 1. A hidden type of abuse: a school leadership issue, Mitchell ( 2010) 2. Ethical or unethical? The Code of ethics of Georgia: a code to be followed. B. FAMILY RESPONSIBILITY 1. Physical child abuse: a cultural problem 2. Physical abuse vs. Discipline C - CHAPTER SUMMARY III- METHODS AND METHODOLOGY Method Sample selection Participants Instrument Implications for School Counselors and parents Results and Limitations IV- REFERENCES Child abuse in the U.S.A I – INTRODUCTION Introduction It has been said that children are our greatest natural resource. As such, children deserve care and protection to keep them from harm. This care currently includes thousands of professionals representing diverse disciplines such as medicine, law, social work, public health and education. Such diverse representation dedicated to this concern is indicative of the complexity of the problem of child maltreatment. Since the publication of The Battered Child in 1962 (Kempe et al), child maltreatment has been "on the radar" of these professionals who have endeavored......

Words: 3691 - Pages: 15

Child Abuse

...Child Abuse Child abuse is a progressively rising concern in America this is has to be dealt with. Over the recent years, the problem has seemed to extensively increase pretty greatly. Child abuse could potentially decreased if we got comminutes to come together to find a solution. An initial first step to potentially helping eliminating child abuse is for communities to take a form of action, and report abuse when it occurs. Some persons may be highly aware that abuse is going on, but potentially scared to report it, even when it could be the best thing for all parties involved in the abuse. Most of the time abuse goes unreported simply because people experience mixed feelings of fear, guilt or even shame. While these feelings have a tendency to possibly get in the way of better judgment, people should and need to see through these mixed emotions and report the noticeable case of child abuse anyway. Child abuse goes unreported because a lot of the times, people do not know how to properly report it. The most frightening incident of reporting abuse could be what could possibly happen after it is reported. Once a case is reported, a social worker or doctor may examine the child or children and the family. Depends on the circumstance of the abuse. But it is a highly important aspect of resolving the problem. Ultimately the children that are hurt in the situation are afraid of the possible outcome of what could happen when the abuse is reported. There are many......

Words: 1109 - Pages: 5