Cho Loading and the Female Cyclist

In: Science

Submitted By chrisburt
Words 4813
Pages 20
CHO Loading and Female Cyclists 1


The Effectiveness of CHO Loading in Female Cyclists
PRF 810 Thesis Paper Christopher S. Burt

CHO Loading and Female Cyclists 2 The Effectiveness of CHO Loading in Female Cyclists Carbohydrate [CHO] loading is the intentional ingestion of above normal amounts of carbohydrate to increase muscle glycogen stores prior to physical activity. This method is often used by elite athletes to improve their performance. With respect to cyclists, the increase in performance is measured experimentally as a decrease in time to complete a race or time trial, an increase time to fatigue, and by decreased power output. There is no singular method for CHO loading. The “first” standard protocol for CHO loading was developed by Bergstrom and Hultman (1), in which the athlete exercised to deplete glycogen from the muscle, then consumed excess CHO over 3 days, without exercising. More recently an exercise tapering protocol has been developed, in which the athlete reduces the amount of exercise being done over 3 days, and does no exercise on day 3 (2). This reduction in exercise is followed by 3, or up to 6, days of loading. However in both versions, and the many modifications thereof, the athlete’s regular training protocol is interrupted. Two recent articles reported the success of consuming 12g/kg of lean body mass high CHO, high glycemic index foods, for 24 hours (3, 4). Both studies showed an increase in muscle glycogen levels at levels equal to or higher than those of a 2-6 day regimen. However an increase in performance was not examined in either study. Thus the athlete must consider which protocol to use, and what specific CHO [low or high glycemic index carbohydrates] to consume. In cyclists, the benefit of CHO loading is unclear. Several articles report that cyclists who consumed CHO rich…...

Similar Documents

Female Bodybuilding

...Female Bodybuilders Today’s society tells women in many different ways how they need to look. In order for a woman to be successful, she must be tall, skinny, and beautiful, or so they are told. However, what about when a woman does not want to look like the women on beauty magazine covers. What if a woman wants to look like the men on bodybuilding magazine covers? Gender stereotypes, feminism, and sexuality are the three main concepts of focus that people on both sides of this topic are debating. When you picture a woman bodybuilder, the result is not only unusual but some will say that this lifestyle is also very unnatural and unhealthy, so let us take a closer look. Gender stereotypes affect people everyday. Stereotypes influence how people act, how people dress, and most importantly how people live their lives. When someone decides to take their body to its genetic limit by diet and exercise, man or woman, they are going to stand out. For a man, this is perfectly acceptable by society’s rules today. The same cannot be said for a woman that wants to be big and strong. Women are brainwashed from the moment they are born to be caring, nurturing, loving, and submissive individuals that are second to men in everything. However, can a woman who is big and strong still have those characteristics? The answer is yes. Women bodybuilders crush stereotypes and are not afraid of people will think or say. Typically, it is harder for women to build and maintain muscle because they......

Words: 1219 - Pages: 5

Female in Sports

...The Emerging of Females in sports In order to fully understand the impact Title nine had on sports, one must examine the life of female’s athletes. First and foremost, female athletes were insignificant; they were over looked and discredited. Male athletes were convinced beyond any doubt that it was them, and them alone, who possessed the ability, talent and charisma needed to succeed in the sports arena. This awe confidence did, however, have its drawbacks as demonstrated by male’s inability to competition from those who disagreed with their enlightened options, views, and decisions. Women's sports include amateur and professional competitions in virtually all sports[->0]. Female participation in sports rose dramatically in the twentieth century, especially in the last quarter, reflecting changes in modern societies that emphasized gender parity. Although the level of participation and performance still varies greatly by country and by sport, women[->1]'s sports have broad acceptance throughout the world, and in a few instances, such as tennis[->2] and figure skating[->3], rival or exceed their male counterparts in popularity. An important aspect about women's sports is that women usually do not compete on equal terms against men. Historically, it has been understood that the "natural order of the universe" consisted of man to the marketplace, woman at home with her family, woman the mistress of domesticity, man the master of all else, man the rational thinker, woman the...

Words: 1132 - Pages: 5

Female Batterers

...Abstract This paper addresses females as perpetrators and instigators of domestic violence. As early as 1974, Richard Gelles was cautioning social workers, police, and women’s groups that they needed to consider the possibility that women are indeed perpetrators of domestic violence and that they may actually deliberately instigate many cases of domestic violence. Unfortunately, the same women’s groups who rallied unceasingly to protect women and children who suffer the effects of the violence have failed to recognize that women do, indeed, hold some responsibility in the perpetration. There is a difference between blaming the victim, and empowering the victim. By accepting responsibility for actions that contribute to the perpetration of violence, we can cease to be victims and begin to be equal partners. 1 The Social Environment Surrounding Domestic Abuse The woman’s movement has been slow to embrace the concept that women can be abusers. For many years, the women’s movement in general – and specifically women’s community groups that support shelters – have taught women that they have a right to live life free of abuse by their male domestic partners. Unfortunately, we as a nation have failed to communicate the other half of this etiology: men have a right to live life free of abuse by their female domestic partners. For various reasons that will be discussed in this paper, treatment providers and law enforcement agencies have been slow to recognize the extent of the......

Words: 974 - Pages: 4

Female Econonmy

...them? The Female Economy by Michael J. Silverstein and Kate Sayre Included with this full-text Harvard Business Review article: 1 Article Summary The Idea in Brief—the core idea 2 The Female Economy Reprint R0909D The Female Economy The Idea in Brief • Women represent the largest market opportunity in the world. • But despite women’s dominant buying power, many companies continue to market mostly to men and fail to explore how they might meet women’s needs. • Companies that can offer tailored products and services—going beyond “make it pink”—will be positioned to win when the economy begins to recover. COPYRIGHT © 2009 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. page 1 As a market, women represent a bigger opportunity than China and India combined. So why are companies doing such a poor job of serving them? The Female Economy by Michael J. Silverstein and Kate Sayre COPYRIGHT © 2009 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Women now drive the world economy. Globally, they control about $20 trillion in annual consumer spending, and that figure could climb as high as $28 trillion in the next five years. Their $13 trillion in total yearly earnings could reach $18 trillion in the same period. In aggregate, women represent a growth market bigger than China and India combined—more than twice as big, in fact. Given those numbers, it would be foolish to ignore or underestimate the female......

Words: 4158 - Pages: 17

Female Circumcision

...Female Circumcision Human Rights? We all have them, don’t we? That is the question I had to ask myself repeatedly while reading about this controversial issue. How far can or should you take the issue when dealing with cultural traditions? Over the past 3 weeks, I have done a lot of research on this topic and have found many things that I did not know. At first, when I read the two articles, honestly, I was more grossed out than anything. I did not really care; I just thought how weird it was going to be to try to write a paper on this topic. The main thing that ran through my mind was, “Why do people even care, men get circumcised every day.” However, after doing research and learning more, I decided it was so much more than that. Marrilee H. Salmon, a professor of science, states in her article how unmoral and degrading the process of female circumcision is. I strongly agree with her opinion and the opinion of many other feminist anthropologists, who are desperately trying to help eliminate this procedure. Salmon also goes on to tell how female circumcision is an act of power more than anything, giving men power and/or authority over women. And it truly is, I mean how is this beneficial to women at all? Every one is entitled to their own opinion and mine is expressed exactly in Marrilee’s article when she says, “it’s also called genital mutilation!” That is exactly what this is, “MUTILATION,” and I definitely agree with putting a stop to it. I also......

Words: 1949 - Pages: 8

Female Entreprenuership

...investigate the state female entrepreneurs with an emphasis on female entrepreneurs from Saudi Arabia. The paper will employ a qualitative approach to try and understand how female entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia have managed to start and manage their enterprises. The reasons that motivated women to take this approach in the business world will be interrogated, the challenges that face them and the means used to mitigate those problems will also be investigated. This thesis will look at the internal and external barriers that are faced by female entrepreneurs. The factors that form the conventional support network for women in business around the globe will be analyzed in a bid to show the to which they have been applied in Saudi Arabia. Using established research literature, the common problems faced by female entrepreneurs are well stated, this paper will go further to show how progress has been achieved and the factors that have facilitated a resurgence of entrepreneurship in this Middle Eastern country. Female Entrepreneurship In Saudi Arabia Female entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia could the next frontier for the improvement of the Middle Eastern economy. A sector long overlooked due to the conservative nature of the Islamic society (Elamin & Omair, 2010), men have traditionally been looked upon to lead the way in business. However, recent development point to a paradigm shift as more Saudi women are making their mark in the business world. The female entrepreneurs need......

Words: 2974 - Pages: 12

Front End Loading Pros and Cons

...Universidad Panamericana – Planeación de Proyectos Juan Eduardo Martínez Aguilera - 0006852 Ensayo – Front-End Loading Introducción Muchas veces los proyectos fallan, se retrasan, incrementan su costo o son detenidos debido a la carencia de una buena planeación. No tener una buena planeación provoca un uso malo o ineficiente del tiempo de los equipos y recursos de un proyecto. Frecuentemente en todo tipo de industrias se presentan estos retrasos los cuáles tienen repercusiones más allá del retraso el proyecto en sí. Algunos ejemplos: “Los ingresos de Empresas ICA disminuyeron 10.2 por ciento a 8 mil 363 millones de pesos en el tercer trimestre del año, resultado de la caída de 23 por ciento en los ingresos por construcción ante el retraso en el desarrollo de grandes proyectos de infraestructura.” [El Financiero 2013] “El gerente general de Siemens Perú, Edwin Chávez, afirmó que el retraso de los proyectos mineros en el país está afectando a las empresas que brindan soluciones y servicios a este sector, pues las ventas programadas con anterioridad no se concretan.” [RPP noticias 2013] “Madrid, 13 de julio de 2012.- Los retrasos y excesos presupuestarios en proyectos de inversión de gran importancia para los sectores del petróleo, el gas y los servicios públicos podrían costar miles de millones de dólares, según un estudio de Accenture.” [Accenture 2012] De acuerdo a un estudio en 2009 de PriceWaterhouseCooper solo 2.5% de los proyectos grandes alcanzan los beneficios de......

Words: 2364 - Pages: 10

Female Circumsion

...‘heinous’ and ‘unjust’. The most shared problem is that which such practice creates a situation where lives of people are put at risk. An eminent practice which is taken into attention is female genital mutilation. This writing shall discuss clashes between human rights and cultural relativism with my personal stance about these two ethical dilemmas. Female genital mutilation is considered as unlawful act by many people while in several cultures it is a common cultural practice. “Female circumcision is mainly carried out in western and southern Asia, the Middle East and large areas of Africa” (bacquet, 2009). In several cultures, some elderly women carry out these practices without any medical backing. It is a shared practice in many cultures with a belief that it makes a girl clean, beautiful and to kill the erotic longings before they get married. Moving on, female genital mutilation is said to rear conflicts amid human rights and cultural relativism. Female circumcision violates human rights because each human being is born to live and make their personal decisions. However at it is also a religious act so one cannot just overlook their religious norms and values. According to African Women’s Organization female genital mutilation has many immoral effects. It causes injuries to the female genital organs which results in bleeding, urinary problem, and infertility (Organisation, 2011). According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the following articles of......

Words: 1195 - Pages: 5

Female Rights

...Stebbens Wells; she began her career with LAPD in 1910 and Lola Baldwin in 1908 Portland Oregon. * These woman were officers who were restricted to positions as jailers or police matron * By 1915 female police officers were employed in 25 different cities, which eventually pave the way for Ellen O’Grady, who became the Police Commissioner of New York City in 1918. 1. Substance abuse, mental illness, and spousal abuse. One of the most significant risk factors is prior victimization 2. Sexual Harassment (Internal Barrier)- some female are scared to file sexual harassment complaints on a male officer. Administrators should take gender discrimination and sexual harassment complaints seriously and assume the proactive role of impartial facilitator when addressing these complaints. Compared to Male Peers, rather it be mental or physical, they always feel that they have something to prove in a male dominated job. Administrators should recognize that differences do exist between female and male police officers. And that those differences biologically and psychologically can be harnessed into positive work actions. They do not reduce the competence level and capabilities of female officers when performing their law enforcement job duties. Tokenism- female police officers may be at times evaluated, promoted, and hired as “tokens” to satisfy statistical requirements of the government or political needs Law enforcement administrators should seek the......

Words: 384 - Pages: 2

Female Husbands

...marriage is between a female wife and a male husband. However, within the Nandi society, the existence of woman/woman marriage is apparent. The aim of this essay is to discuss and evaluate whether the female husband in this woman/woman union is a man, with reference to the article, “Is the Female Husband a Man. Woman/Woman Marriage among the Nandi of Kenya, written by Oboler. The factors that will be discussed will be the requirements for inheritance, gender roles and the husband/wife and husband/child relationship. One can suggest that the female husband is not a man due to the pure fact that biologically the female husband is not a male but a female. The first factor that will be discussed is the requirements for inheritance. Within the Nandi society property and livestock is held and managed exclusively by men. (Oboler, R.S.1980:136) Therefore, a son is needed to transfer ownership of land and livestock from one generation to the next. In instances where a woman has born no sons, she marries a younger women in the hope that she may bear a male child in order to provide an heir for her assets. Sons are also needed to continue the family name else the family name will die. In conventional families and households the role of man is breadwinner, protector and provider. Men are responsible for certain aspects of physical labour, they oversee livestock e.g. cattle and hold the position of head on the household. Within the woman/woman marriage the female husband, “adopts the......

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Female Mutation

...Sean Joseph, RN Female Genital Mutilation Controversy The removal of external female genitalia has been part of a celebrated ritual in the lives of girls and women in some cultures and countries for centuries. Despite growing international campaign to abolish female genital mutilation (FGM), many still see this tradition as an effective and acceptable method of controlling women's attitudes toward sex and sexuality and of ensuring their virginity and suitability for marriage. An estimated 120 million girls and women have undergone FGM, and approximately 2 million procedures are performed annually on girls under the age of 11, most commonly performed in Africa, it is also practiced in parts of Southeast Asia, the Middle East and in Central and South America. In countries such as Sierra Leone, an estimated 90% of women have undergone FGM. A least invasive form of FGM known as the clitoridectomy, also known by the Arabic term Sunna, involves excision of the prepuce and part or the entire clitoris. The second form, "excision," involves removal of the clitoris and part or all of the labia minor. "Infibulation," which means "to fasten with a clip or buckle," is the most invasive form and is most common in Somalia, Ethiopia, parts of Kenya and the Sudan. It involves removal of the clitoris, all of the labia minor and part or all of the labia majora, and the pinning or stitching of the two sides of the vulva closed. A narrow opening is left for urinary and menstrual outflow......

Words: 608 - Pages: 3


...Female Rulers Erin B HUM111 November 29, 2015 History is full of powerful women who ruled over lands and won wars to protect their kingdom just the same as the powerful men in history often times better than the men. Some female rulers we know from history such as Hatshepsut who ruled over Egypt long before Cleopatra, Queen Victoria of Great Brittan, Queen Elizabeth II queen of England today and the list could go on and on. However, the two female rulers that we are going compare are Wu Zetian of china who was born in 624 A.D. and Pharaoh Cleopatra of Egypt who was born 69B.C. both was rulers of their time until their deaths. These two female rulers came from very different backgrounds but ultimately ended up on the same path to become strong rulers of their time who didn’t let nothing or no one get in their way of them keeping their kingdoms and the power that comes with it. Wu Zetian was born in 624 A.D. in Wenshui county, Shanxi Province and was the only female ruler to sit on the imperial throne. She ruled the self-proclaimed Zhou Dynasty which later became known as the Tang Dynasty from 690-705 until her death at 80 years old in 705A.D.Wu’s father Wu Shihuo was one of the meritorious chancellors of the Tang Dynasty he gave her an education by teaching her himself. Both Wu Zetian and Cleopatra was very smart starting when they was young women. Cleopatra Spoke 6 different languages Hebrew, Arabic, Latin, Eygptian, Ethiopian and Greek. Cleopatra also studied Arts,...

Words: 1532 - Pages: 7

Female Body

...The Taboo Of Boobs Introduction: Boobs, boobies, jugs, tits, suckers, knockers, hooters or breasts. Over time breasts have developed many different names and new meanings. Some may look at boobs as nothing more than just the anatomy of a female, while others love them, and some think that they are evil and a mark of death. In every era, from early and middle ages, through the renaissance, and then 19th and twentieth century, breasts have fascinated human beings. Breasts are more than a body part that we need for reproduction, they play a major role in the development of society and our social norms. The controversy of importance is argued by doctors as well as piers. Today most people affiliate breasts with vanity. People have always loved the beauty in breasts, but society has lost the value in them and why they are beautiful. What is so great to look at, when everyone’s got them, and if they don’t, they can buy some at your local doctor’s office. So why do people buy them? And is bigger the better? There really isn’t an answer to that question because they are both very broad topics and constantly changing. We can try and interpret these answers with social norms which vary in different cultures, or we can look at research and biology and try and answer the questions scientifically. Either approach will lead you to controversy because over time there purpose in life has changed significantly. And there are debates all over the...

Words: 2668 - Pages: 11

The Imperfection of the Female

...Ann Bonifacio Assignment #3 March 07, 2016 The Imperfection of Female The author, Lucy Clifford suggests that children are easily corrupted, women are out of control, and mothers have inadequate parenting skills in the story “The New Mother”. Firstly, Clifford shows that children in “The New Mother” can be corrupted easily. The children Blue-Eyes and Turkey are quickly convinced by the Gypsy girl to be naughty in order for them to see the little people dance in her pear-drum. In this case, Blue-Eyes and Turkey are willing to behave disobediently to gain what they want. In order to satisfy the Gypsy girl that they are naughty enough, they also do things against their mother’s wishes. They follow the things that the Gypsy girl suggests them to do even if their behaviour hurts their mother’s feelings. They tell the Gypsy girl “We have been so very naughty, and mother says she will go away to-day and send home a new mother if we are not good” (Clifford 60A). They choose to disobey their mother through the manipulation of the Gypsy girl, making them believe that “There is no mother with a wooden tail and glass eyes and if there were we should just stick pins into her and send her away” (Clifford 60A). The two girls also break things at their house such as the tins on the wall, and window as advised by the Gypsy Girl. “We have done all the things you told us; now will show us the little man and woman?” (Clifford 60A), the children try to prove her. Her manipulation......

Words: 829 - Pages: 4

Aviation Management - Distinguish Between Trimming and Loading . Write About the Procedure of Loading

...operation (airport support area) to the scheduling of planes and pilots ? Q 11 ) Explain the meaning of following :- A ) Red channel B ) Post Flight Check C) Handling of Disable People d) Excess Baggage e ) Special Handling f ) Aisle g ) Excursion Fire h ) Inland Air travel tax Q 12 ) What are the step involved in pre-flight arrangement of an Aircraft ? Q 13 ) Explain the Procedure of Baggage Handling for an International Flight ? Q 14 ) What is a Seating Chart ? Describe the seating arrangements in an aircraft ? Q 15 ) Explain the procedure of post-flight arrangement and differentiate post-flight arrangement from pre-flight arrangement ? Q 16 ) Distinguish between trimming and loading . Write about the procedure of loading ? WE PROVIDE CASE STUDY ANSWERS, ASSIGNMENT SOLUTIONS, PROJECT REPORTS AND THESIS ARAVIND - 09901366442 – 09902787224...

Words: 265 - Pages: 2