Composite Fibreglass Helical Spring

In: Science

Submitted By pseudolegolas
Words 305
Pages 2
Composite Fibreglass Helical Spring

Objective


To make a helical spring from fibreglass composite with the following properties:

D(mean) = 43 mm D(internal)>30mm K = 250 lb/in Compression max = 3 in = 75mm Length = 130mm N = 6 active + 2 inactive











Materials Used for Final Sample


Unidirectional Fibreglass Roving Araldite (epoxy)



Properties of the Composite


Taken from the book ”mechanics of composite materials” by Robert M. Jones


E1 = 7.8 X 10^6 psi E2 = 2.6 X 10^6 psi G12 = 1.3 X 10^6 psi Xt = 150 X 10^3 psi = Xc Yt = 4 X 10^3 psi S = 6 X 10^3 psi Yc = 20 X 10^3 psi













Formulae's used to Design


Rate (N/mm) = K 2 G b t 3/ (N D 3) Stress (N/mm 2) = K 1 W D /( b t 2 )




* b = largest section dimension(mm) * t = Smallest Section dimension(mm) * K 1 = Shape Factor (see table) * K 2 = Shape Factor (see table) * C = Spring Index = D/(radial dimension = b or t)











For b=t, K 1=2.41, K 2=0.18

Theoritical Parameters Obtained


Square cross section Side = 10mm D(min) = 31mm D(mean) = 41mm Length = 127mm Compression max = 55mm K = 263 lb/in N = 5 active















Initial Trial


Used an aluminium core of 30 mm Dia. Used double sided tape to make the design Used fibreglass unidirectional roving Used unknown matrix material.







Results Obtained


Removal of spring from the core was very difficult. Matrix had dipped out of the spring. As very less matrix material was left in the spring it didn't perform its function.





Changes made to the second sample


Used araldite instead of unknown material As the matrix material(araldite) was very viscous it didnt sweep out. Used heater to cure it faster.





Results Obtained


Need to be tested.

THANK YOU…...

Similar Documents

Composite Materials

...ABSTRACT The mechanical properties of composite materials are strongly dependent on micro structural parameters of the system. The evolution of microstructure depends largely on the cooling rate during phase change. Though the microstructure evolution depends on many process parameters, the final structure is decided by cooling conditions during solidifications. The mould material has a decided effect on the structure formation. The use of end chills during casting not only favours directional solidification but also accelrates solidification. Faster cooling rates give rise to finer structures and improved mechanical properties. In this work an attempt is made to prepare Al-B4C composites cast using stainless steel and cast iron chills in a colplete adiabatic system. The microstrucutre and micro-hardness of the chill cast specimens are analyzed and reported. It is observed that the chill material has a significant influence on the microstructure and properties of the cast specimens. Finner structure and better mechanical properties were observed with the specimen cast using stainless-steel chill whereas cast iron chill gave rise to coarse structure with reduces mechanical properties. INTRODUCTION Engineering Materials There are more than 50,000 materials available to engineers for the design and manufacturing of products for various applications. These materials range from copper, cast iron, brass, which have been available for so many years, to the more......

Words: 502 - Pages: 3

Aluminum Matrix Composite

...Continuous fibers: boron, silicon carbide, alumina, graphite * Discontinuous fibers: alumina, alumina-silica * Whiskers: silicon carbide * Particulates: silicon carbide, boron carbide STIR CASTING METHOD OF FABRICATION OF MMCs * Liquid state fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites involves incorporation of dispersed phase * into a molten matrix metal, followed by its Solidification. * In order to provide high level of mechanical properties of the composite, good interfacial * bonding (wetting) between the dispersed phase and the liquid matrix should be obtained. * Wetting improvement may be achieved by coating the dispersed phase particles (fibers). Proper * coating not only reduces interfacial energy, but also prevents chemical interaction between the * dispersed phase and the matrix. * The simplest and the most cost effective method of liquid state fabrication is Stir Casting. * 26 * Stir Casting * Stir Casting is a liquid state method of composite materials fabrication, in which a dispersed * phase (ceramic particles, short fibers) is mixed with a molten matrix metal by means of * mechanical stirring. * The liquid composite material is then cast by conventional casting methods and may also be * processed by conventional Metal forming technologies. * Stir Casting is characterized by the following features: * Content of dispersed phase is limited (usually not more than 30 vol. %). *......

Words: 3738 - Pages: 15

Composite Aircraft

...University London Faculty of Engineering Bachelor of Science (Hons) in Aircraft Engineering Composite Aircraft Module no: AE3110 Module Title: Aerospace Technology Submitted by: Muhammad Ariffin Bin Omar (K1068479) Abstract This report will contain the study of composite materials, why it is attractive for applications in the aerospace industry, factors limiting its use, as well as a brief review of the composite materials in commercial aircraft over the past 20 years. Contents Abstract 2 Introduction 4 Composite 5 Advantages of Composites in Aerospace Application 6 Factors limiting use of Composites 8 Applications of Composites in the last 20 years 10 Potential Challenges 12 Conclusion 13 References 14 Introduction During the early years of aviation, aircrafts were constructed by using wood and cloth. Later on in the 1930’s it began to transit into the use of aluminum, steel and titanium as the main building materials for constructing aircrafts. Only in the 1950’s was composite material being introduced to construct aircrafts when it was used on the Boeing 707 commercial aircraft. Even so, its application in the aerospace industry was still very little. Only recently has composite material been more widely used for aerospace applications. The Airbus A380 uses composites in the construction of its wings, and the Boeing 787 has a structure that is 50 percent made of composites. This evolution in material used driven by economics, logistics and the expectations of......

Words: 1865 - Pages: 8

The Last Spring

...The last spring I remember once I had someone very dear to me, someone that left deep traces in my life, someone that would live in my heart forever, someone that I will never forget. In order to preserve the memory of this angel, a divine human creature, I devote this story to my friend because her innocence and her fragility has been inspiring me for years. I hope that many people will understand the hidden message once they've read the story. It was a wonderful spring dawning. The air was poisoned with nothing else but the strong smell of the spring flowers and the joy of the birds' songs. We were holding our hands and happily as happy can two little girls be, we were bouncing and jumping in the park. Spring could be seen in our eyes, sunshine could be recognized in our smile. It seemed to us like we were flying in the air as two colourful butterflies from a flower to a flower, each of them more and more beautiful, each of them more and more attracting, as if they were the last days of our lives and each of them was more and more challenging. Smiling faces everywhere, people could envy our happy childhood reflected in the deepness of our sight. We were so excited in those spring rainbows above our heads without knowing that this would be our last spring together, remembered afterwards as the coldest one and the darkest one in my life. It's funny how Marta and I met at a beach resort. We could never imagine that we were going to be inseparable friends.......

Words: 1290 - Pages: 6

Spring

...Hopkins’s poem focuses on the beauty of the spring season, using examples of how life blossoms during the spring. Everything comes to life, the new array of colors paint a colorful world. All of God’s little creatures come to life. Birds fill the air soaring through the bluest sky, they build nest for little newcomers. The spring showers clean the air and everything smells clean and fresh to the poet. This world emerged from a dreary place called winter. Hopkins expresses how spring brings God’s paradise alive once again; and he is elated. Hopkins shows God his appreciation through his expression of how the spring must be similar, to the Garden of Eden. The world feels clean and bright to the Hopkins. Almost seems like a prayer request asking God to make it last forever, unlike the Garden of Eden which brought sorrow and despair. Analysis: Hopkins focuses on bright colors, like the "descending blue, that blue is all in a rush" and also uses similar "like lightning" to reinforce the power of spring. The image he gives the reader catches the reader off guard, a small distraction small distraction. Hopkins states “weeds and wheels” and “long lovely and lush,” this little distraction changes the readers’ visual. However, almost immediately he regains the reader’s attention. With his illustration it only gives the reader the meaning as his imaginary wheel makes you focus on his expression of the spring season here, Hopkins hits a note, he questions nature “”all......

Words: 384 - Pages: 2

The Americanness of the Short Story Composite

...fit an American writer,” he had invented his own form of a “new looseness” in the Wines- The Americanness of the Short Story Composite burg book. In a note he pointed to a parallel between the composition of his narrative and that of a much larger structure. 44Do we not live in a great, loose land of many states,” he wrote, “and yet all of these states together do make something, a land, a country. I submit that the form of my Wines- burg tales …may offer a suggestion to other writers.” 1 Ever since colonial times Americans, as well as visitors to the new continent, have been concerned with establishing a ''dominant value profileM2 for America,and if a link between this national “ethos” and the short story composite could be convincingly suggested, it would follow that this form The aim of this chapter is to investigate whether Anderson's suggestion, in fact, is a valid one. whether there is a degree of correspondence between the form of narrative that Anderson employed, the short story composite, and what over the years has been constructed as an American identity. of narrative could be held forth as more “American” than other literary genres. And if, in tum, the short story composite could be projected as yet another expression of a more general American cultural pattern, constructed or not, we might expect a larger number of short story composites to be written in the United States than in any other country....

Words: 276 - Pages: 2

Carbon Fibre Composite

...Carbon fibre reinforced polymer Name Institutional analysis Introduction Carbon Fibre reinforced polymer commonly known as CFRP is a very strong composite material that is majorly preferred for many automotive and aeronautical application due to the fact that despite their strength that still light that the traditional metallic materials. The polymers often used to make this composite material is epoxy, polyester, vinyl and even nylon. Thus in making CFRP carbon fibre is often combined with polymers such as epoxy to result in a material that has a very high strength-to-weight ratio. Carbon fibre reinforced polymers despite being relative expensive as compared to other traditional metallic materials; they have been preferred for many applications such as in the automotive industry and aeronautical industry where high strength-to-weight ratio is demanded. (Image 1: carbon fibre reinforced polymer) Advantages of CFRP over Traditional metallic material Carbon fibre reinforced polymers are very strong which has made them of interest in the field of engineering. According to Gesellschaft (1981), CFRPs is important because they can offer high strength value at a relatively low value of weight. In the construction of body parts of automobiles, it is important that the designs are very low in fuel consumption. In order to have the minimal fuel consumption then, the first issue that the automobile fields have to address is the weight of the designs. CFRPs are of interest......

Words: 1460 - Pages: 6

Carbon Fibre Composite

...Carbon fibre reinforced polymer Name Institutional analysis Introduction Carbon Fibre reinforced polymer commonly known as CFRP is a very strong composite material that is majorly preferred for many automotive and aeronautical application due to the fact that despite their strength that still light that the traditional metallic materials. The polymers often used to make this composite material is epoxy, polyester, vinyl and even nylon. Thus in making CFRP carbon fibre is often combined with polymers such as epoxy to result in a material that has a very high strength-to-weight ratio. Carbon fibre reinforced polymers despite being relative expensive as compared to other traditional metallic materials; they have been preferred for many applications such as in the automotive industry and aeronautical industry where high strength-to-weight ratio is demanded. (Image 1: carbon fibre reinforced polymer) Advantages of CFRP over Traditional metallic material Carbon fibre reinforced polymers are very strong which has made them of interest in the field of engineering. According to Gesellschaft (1981), CFRPs is important because they can offer high strength value at a relatively low value of weight. In the construction of body parts of automobiles, it is important that the designs are very low in fuel consumption. In order to have the minimal fuel consumption then, the first issue that the automobile fields have to address is the weight of the designs. CFRPs are of interest......

Words: 1460 - Pages: 6

Carbon Fibre Composite

...Carbon fibre reinforced polymer Name Institutional analysis Introduction Carbon Fibre reinforced polymer commonly known as CFRP is a very strong composite material that is majorly preferred for many automotive and aeronautical application due to the fact that despite their strength that still light that the traditional metallic materials. The polymers often used to make this composite material is epoxy, polyester, vinyl and even nylon. Thus in making CFRP carbon fibre is often combined with polymers such as epoxy to result in a material that has a very high strength-to-weight ratio. Carbon fibre reinforced polymers despite being relative expensive as compared to other traditional metallic materials; they have been preferred for many applications such as in the automotive industry and aeronautical industry where high strength-to-weight ratio is demanded. (Image 1: carbon fibre reinforced polymer) Advantages of CFRP over Traditional metallic material Carbon fibre reinforced polymers are very strong which has made them of interest in the field of engineering. According to Gesellschaft (1981), CFRPs is important because they can offer high strength value at a relatively low value of weight. In the construction of body parts of automobiles, it is important that the designs are very low in fuel consumption. In order to have the minimal fuel consumption then, the first issue that the automobile fields have to address is the weight of the designs. CFRPs are of interest......

Words: 1460 - Pages: 6

Carbon Fibre Composite 2

...Fibre Composites Compared with Traditional Metallics Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction According to Elaheh Ghassemieh (2011), the automotive industry has experienced lots of changes that occurs by day through the application of composite materials in the manufacturing of motor vehicle parts and body. Several reasons have been advanced in support of this shift from the traditional use of metals. In comparison to the metallic counterparts, many composite materials exhibit relatively greater strength characteristics as compared to the metallic materials. They are also comparatively lighter than the metals and thereby reducing the fuel cost per passenger in the vehicles. It is also believed that composites exhibit higher resistance to fatigue from repetitive use and thus reducing the maintenance cost of the vehicles and increasing the usage time. In reference to Long, A. C. (2005), the composite material can be defined as a material consisting of strong carry-load materials (reinforcements) embedded in a relatively weaker material (matrix). The purpose of the reinforcement is to provide the strength stiffness, rigidity and mechanical properties needed to support the structural load. The matrix on the other hand acts to provide a fixed orientation of the reinforcement and in many cases is more brittle. Question 1 Advantages of carbon fibre reinforced polymers in over metallics Carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP is one of the classes of the composite......

Words: 2351 - Pages: 10

Composites

...be as follows: Brief explanation of composite materials [2 marks] Your own research into: Current structural applications of composite materials in vehicle body design. Main manufacturing techniques used for composite structural components. Please refer to example(s) of cars where composite materials have been used as structural components. [8 marks] Discussion of the potential advantages and limitations in the use of composite materials in volume production cars. [4 marks] The assignment will be marked out of 20 with the marks indicated above and the remaining marks allocated as follows: Structure. [1 mark] Appropriate use of reliable references and standard referencing system. [3 marks] Appropriate / good use of labelled and referenced figures. [2 marks] The total word count for the assignment should be 1500 words. Applications http://www.pes-performance.com/news/case-studies_temp/potential-use-of-biocomposite-materials-for-the-production-of-future-niche-vehicle-bodywork-panels/ http://mech.utah.edu/composites_cars/ -crashworthiness -racing cars Techniques http://www.thinkengineering.net/104/composite-materials-in-automotive-engineering/automotive-engineering/ http://www.mscsoftware.com/training_videos/patran/Reverb_help/index.html#page/Laminate%20Modeler/lam_tutorial.3.03.html Advantages http://mech.utah.edu/composites_cars/ The biggest advantage of modern composite materials is that they are light as well......

Words: 787 - Pages: 4

Egg Shell Composites

...Polyamide-Egg Shell Powder Composite Materials Challa Ramesh Madanapalle Institute of Technology & Science, Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh, India M. Vamsi Krishna Assistant Professor, Madanapalle Institute of Technology & Science Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh, India Sreenivasulu Bezawada Assistant Professor, Madanapalle Institute of Technology & Science Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh, India Abstract: A composite is a structural material which consists of two or more constituents. The constituents are combined at a macroscopic level and are not soluble in each other. One constituent is called the Reinforcing Phase and the one in which it is embedded is called the Matrix Phase. The reinforcing material may be in the form of fibers, particles or flakes. The matrix phase materials are generally continuous. Fibers are used to carry the load and matrix is used to bind and transmit the load to fibers. Fibers can be produced with various materials, such as metals, glass and plastics etc. Now a day’s natural fibers like animal feathers, plant fibers are used to produce the composites. In the present work polyamide is used as a matrix materials, the egg shell particles are used as reinforced material to produce the composites. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact strength, flexural strengths have to be tested. Keywords: component; Egg shell powder, Polymer matrix composite mechanical properties 1. Introduction A material is called composite if it has......

Words: 2302 - Pages: 10

Spring

...SPRING Link: http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/2.5.4/reference/index.html Packages to remember: BeanFactory: org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanFactory Interface. XmlBeanFactory: org.springframework.beans.factory.xml.XmlBeanFactory Class. It implements BeanFactory Interface. Application Context: org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext Interface. It is a sub interface of BeanFactory. ClassPathXmlApplicationContext: org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext class. BeanFactory ClassPathXmlApplicationContext XmlBeanFactory ApplicationContext implements extends implements Spring Core Container: Spring core container is an IOC implementation in java. IOC is an architectural pattern describing to have an external entity to wire the objects. Here the wiring is done using dependency injection. IOC pattern describes to have an external entity to perform DI. IOC – Inversion of Control DI – Dependency Injection. Dependency Injection is a mechanism of making the dependencies available to the object. The other 2 approaches to do the same are, 1. Creating the dependencies 2. Pulling the dependencies. In Dependency Injection mechanism the dependencies are pushed into the object. This approach helps us in creating the object more cleanly, as the code for creating or pulling the dependencies is excluded from the object. However identifying the objects in which the DI is to be implemented is......

Words: 1559 - Pages: 7

The Sanghai Composite Crash

...The shanghai composite crash The Shanghai Composite Index, which is China's version of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, dropped a whopping 8.4%, which is its steepest one-day fall since 2007. China is one of the world's largest economies, but also one of the most fragile. In the last few months, its stock market has seen an incredible rise in prices. Those prices have now been crashing down; causing broader concern about the impact a Chinese economic meltdown could have on the rest of the world. After the China stock rout, Indonesian and Malaysian currencies are back at Asian crisis levels. This isn't just China's problem. Over the past few years, Major American companies depend on the health of China's economy, and its stock market, for their revenues. Apple points to its growth in China as a bright point; with $13.2 billion in sales there, China is the company's second-biggest market after the U.S. with revenues jumping 112% in the past year. China and its taste for mass luxury is why the gold iPhone exists. Chinese stocks lost about $3.9 trillion in value. It looked like the market could be on the verge of a total collapse. Due to the wild swings, more than half of listed Chinese companies have taken the drastic step of suspending their own shares. That's right: half the companies on the Chinese stock market aren't even trading, and stocks are still crashing. The Chinese government is working furiously to avert catastrophe in its stock market. They're doing this......

Words: 582 - Pages: 3

Spring Valley

...SPRING VALLEY FOREST PRODUCTS CORPORATION Upon returning from his annual two-week vacation in early July of 2002, the treasurer of the Spring Valley Forest Products Corporation, a Mr. Fred Firr, found the firm's audited balance sheet as of June 30 on his desk. Close scrutiny of the company's financial condition as reported in this document suggested to Mr. Firr that the cash flow picture for the enterprise was deteriorating. In times gone by, the firm had been able to maintain sizeable cash balances in its bank of account, Tippecanoe Trust Company, during the major portion of the fiscal year, and had found only modest seasonal borrowings necessary. Recently, however, a lengthening of credit terms to customers necessitated by intense competition in the company's dominant product lines had increased working capital needs quite substantially. Simultaneously, lower selling prices occasioned by the same competition had diminished profit margins. For these reasons, Mr. Firr-who had starred as a quarterback in high school, felt that a careful forecast of funds needs for the remainder of 2002 was in order. Spring Valley Forest Products (SPRIVORPCO) produced plywood paneling and moldings both for lumber wholesalers and major contractors in the north central Indiana area. The verdant Wabash River Valley had proven capable of supporting the lush growths of timber necessary to the company's production activities. Most lumber, however, was purchased from independent farmers and...

Words: 1159 - Pages: 5