Containerization

In: Business and Management

Submitted By stiangrind
Words 1505
Pages 7
Hvordan og hvorfor har ”containerisering” revolusjonert verdens varetransport og bidratt til økonomisk globalisering?

Containere, store firkantede kasser i massivt stål, er i dag helt vanlig å bruke i varetransport. De lastes på skip, tog og biler og skipes av gårde til bestemmelsesdestinasjonen. En container er ikke spesielt komplisert, allikevel har innføringen av containere i varetransporten ført til det en nærmest kan kalle en revolusjon hva angår handel mellom land og kontinenter.
Containeren, slik vi kjenner den i dag, er en relativt ny oppfinnelse. Æren for oppfinnelsen av den moderne containeren tilskrives ofte amerikaneren Malcolm McLean (Cudahy, 2006). McLean drev i førkrigstida et lite lastebilfirma i USA og irriterte seg grenseløst over hvor lang tid og det tok å få lastet varene han leverte over fra bil til skip. På denne tida foregikk det meste av omlasting manuelt og kostnadene knyttet til å få lastet og losset skip og andre transportmidler utgjorde en svært stor del, ofte brorparten, av de totale shippingkostnadene. Etter krigen, nærmere bestemt i 1956, forsøkte McLean seg på en ny måte å transportere varer på. Han kontraherte et lasteskip fra New York til Houston. Han koblet lasterommene fra drivlinja på 58 lastebiler, og lastet hele skrogene på skipet. Vel framme i Houston ble de samme lasterommene koblet på 58 nye drivlinjer. Omlastningen tok en brøkdel av tiden i forhold til ved tradisjonelle metoder. Varetransport ved hjelp av containere var et faktum.
Det skal sies at McLean ikke var den første som eksperimenterte transport av hele kasser fylt med varer. Forsøk med omlastbare containere hadde vært utført så mye som et halvt århundre tidligere i Storbritannia og av den amerikanske hæren under 2. verdenskrig (Wikipedia, 2011). En forklaring på at McLean likevel ofte tilskrives æren for å ha startet prosessen mot en ”containerisert” økonomi…...

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