In: Social Issues

Submitted By haddadr
Words 4157
Pages 17
-Corrections is a booming business prisons + crime = profitable industry we have an Increasing number of people under correctional supervision
6 million people under the correctional system by the end of the century
- Tough on Crime Political Stance popular public policy
20 million victimizations in 2009 repeat violent felons off of the streets treat minors as adults create mandatory sentencing laws reduce time-off-for-good-behavior
- Shift in Public Opinion
4.3 million violent crimes
33 million personal theft crimes
- 7.2 million 3% (1 in 33) of adults in the U.S. are under some sort of correctional supervision

-Probation (community sentence) and parole are NOT the same thing

-1.3% average annual increase from 2000 to 2009 But declined 1.3% in 2010 to 2009 “has the correctional population supervision increased or decreased from 2000 to 2009?” Answer: INCREASED

- the majority of people in the corrections system are on PROBATION

- Percentage breakdowns for types of offences:
9% Public Disorder (35% federal) DUI, indecent exposure, drunken disorderly, prostitution, etc.
18% Drug Offence (51% federal)
19% Property Offense (less than 10% federal)
53% Violent Offenses (less than 10% federal)
- Regions highest to lowest
North East
- Top 5 States
New York

Notes From Ch. 1 in Textbook-

- Penology the study of the use of punishment for criminal acts
- Penitentiary typically used to describe older or highly secure prisons; first term used to describe secure facilities to hold criminals
- Corrections the range of community and institutional sanctions, treatment programs, and services for managing criminal offenders
- Gaols
English system of jails
- Walnut Street Jail first penitentiary in the united states
-Pennsylvania System the “separate and Silent” system…...

Similar Documents


...Corrections and Approaches Ann Pierce AIU Online Abstract There are different correctional theories in the judicial system. Some may work better than others. Likewise, there are traditional forms of punishment and nontraditional ones also. Some of these approaches work better than others. Corrections and Approaches There are different correctional theories in our judicial system today. While some may punish only and others deter from committing crimes all have a common goal, that is to make offenders think twice about reoffending. Retribution Theory In the retribution theory punishment is seen as deserved, justified and required by the offender’s behavior. The main goal of this theory is vengeance; In other words, to get “revenge” for wrongs done. In the public’s eyes and political policy making it is still the primary goal of sentencing (Schmalleger, F. 2012). Incapacitation Incapacitation put simply means making the offender unable to reoffend. It is the use of imprisonment or other means to keep the offender from committing another crime. This is the second goal of sentencing. It is to protect innocent members of society from criminals that may cause them harm. Unlike retribution is requires only restraint of the offender. This is the basis for the movement towards “prison......

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Corrections are ordinary people who have made a mistake and some how have got caught up in the system with no idea how to get out. With virtually no form of rehabilitation in our penal system today 70% of all these inmates are lost without hope and will end up back in the system after they are released. Taking this into account, not every Tom, Dick and Harry can come to work in America's prisons. We are packing some of the worst that society has to offer in over crowded prisons all across our country and expecting officers to do the job the way it is supposed to be done. Over the eleven years I have been incarcerated it had grown steadily worse for inmates and correctional officers alike. The title of this essay is "What Makes a Good Corrections Officer," and that is a difficult question to answer, especially with me being an inmate. Trying to keep my emotions from interfering and not to be biased in my writing is a difficult task indeed. Most inmates feel a good officer is one who will let the inmate get away with murder, but that isn't realistic because that would just let the inmates run all over the system. Rules and guidelines are necessary to control our growing prison populations and correctional officers are needed to enforce those rules. All of the good correctional officers I know have a few things in common. One they all say the training they received during their on the job training was inadequate and fell short of preparing them for the realities of prison......

Words: 2257 - Pages: 10


...Corrections Corrections Service is responsible for probation, parole, aftercare and adult institutional services throughout the Territories. The purpose of the Corrections Service is the correction and treatment of offenders and the protection of the community by: * providing, when requested by a court, information respecting the background of an offender before sentencing; * offering probation and parole supervision,  counselling and aftercare services to offenders; * providing for the safe custody and detention of inmates in a correctional centre; * providing supervision, treatment and training of inmates with a view to their rehabilitation; and * promoting and assisting programs designed to prevent and diminish crime within a community. The Corrections Service provides services for both adult and young offenders. These services are supervised by the Director of Corrections, and are undertaken by a staff of approximately 240 full time and casual employees in ten communities. Intermediate punishments are intended for selected criminals convicted of nonviolent crimes, low-level drug offenders, and probationers and parolees who have committed technical violations but no new crimes. Many of these offenders are currently serving time in prison. To accommodate differences in crimes and behavior, the middle rung punishments increase in severity and control as one mounts the ladder towards prison. Intermediate punishments typically have two parts: punishment and......

Words: 663 - Pages: 3


...polices, courts, and corrections. Each component will be defined according to the criminal justice system. Police are people that keep the community in peace with issues and are in charge of regulating the crime and affairs within their city limits. Each police force follow the same laws in there state. But in every city is different on how they enforce it and the leniency. Then you have the federal police agencies which would be the FBI, NSA, DEA, CIA, ATF, DHS, SS, and U.S. Marshals. They all do the same thing but they do it in higher law which deals with the Federal laws and there stand point. The Criminal Justice System is in place to enforce the law in a public order. Which it protects people from crimes and harm. The courts deal with people that have broken the law set in place of the system. Which are the offenders that go in and whatever they are being charged with the judge or the jury determine the sentence depending on what the case is. The courts also do more than that. They also help out with getting warrants and information for an arrest which then goes back on the police to do their job to bring the justice of peace. Corrections depends on the service of corrections you talk about because you have probation, parole, juvenile corrections, and social services. This area of people keep the offenders in line with things they have to do to meet requirements in order to go back in live like everyone else. Also the people that are in corrections also can have......

Words: 587 - Pages: 3


...Evolution of Corrections The history of punishment and the development of a system to detain offenders has evolved continuously over the centuries. The implementation of the Pennsylvania and Auburn system has set a foundation for the corrections system we use today. Having inmates perform labor during a prison sentence has contributed to the ongoing change over time of the prison system and in a way that has contributed to the rehabilitation of offenders. One might find it quite interesting to see how society and its evolution has greatly changed the system we use to punish offenders. History of Punishment Punishment for wrongful acts have dated back many centuries and could have began shortly after the beginning of the human race. One of the earliest know penal codes dates back to 1780 B.C. and is known as the Code of Hammurabi. This code was established by King Hammurabi during his reign of Old Babylon. The different types of punishment have changed greatly over the centuries. Punishments that were accepted by society in the early centuries are viewed as inhumane in our society today. The earliest responses to crime were brutal when compared to punishments in the society of the 20th century. Punishments such as torture, beatings, branding, and mutilation were accepted centuries ago. Although there are some countries that still accept some of these forms of punishment, most societies today would deem it inhumane. In today's society one is innocent until......

Words: 1195 - Pages: 5


...Correction and Treatmen CJS/240 08/03/2014 University Of Phoenix Correction and Treatment Community treatment in juvenile justice refers to Probation, Intensive Supervision, House arrest, balanced probation, Restitution, and Residential programs (Siegel & Welsh, 2005). Residential programs provide the juvenile with a more secure, safe living environment that can be provided by probation services (Siegel & Welsh, 2005). But most residential programs are often divided into four different categories such as foster homes, family group homes, Group homes and also rural programs (Siegel & Welsh, 2005). Group homes are non secure residences that provide these people with counseling, education; family living and they also teach them about job training. Foster care programs involve one or two juveniles who live with a husband and their wife these people are the ones who act as their caregivers and even to some they act like their parents would. The juveniles have the opportunity actually be able to get to know more about things they didn’t know and also they will be able to learn and grow in to a loving caring home and they could actually receive the attention that they have never felt are received at home before. The welfare department generally handles foster placements and funding of this treatment option (Siegel & Welsh, 2005). Rural programs include camps, farms, and ranches. They provide recreational activities and work for the juveniles.......

Words: 536 - Pages: 3


...ßCorrections Review Questions Sept 22,2014 Corrections Imani Threalkill 1. How did the term corrections evolve from the earlier use of the term penology? Penology is the study of the use of punishment for criminal acts. Penology emphasized the principal function of implementing punishment in the handling of criminal offenders after their sentencing. Corrections are defined as the range of community and institutional sanctions, treatment programs, and service for managing criminal offenders. 2. What is the mission of corrections? To protect society accomplished through a combination of surveillance and control of offenders, rehabilitative services, and incapacitation during the services of a prison sentence. 3. Describe the operation of the Walnut Street Jail as the first American prison. Walnut Street Jail was one of hard labor, strict discipline, religious study, and solitary and silent confinement. 4. Describe the differences in the Pennsylvania and the Auburn systems. The Pennsylvania System known as the separate and silent enforces inmates not to see or talk with each other meaning less production from inmates, which was very expensive to operate. More staff was needed. Impossible to keep inmates from talking. Only 2 states decided to keep this system (New Jersey & Rhode......

Words: 938 - Pages: 4


...I think that I prefer Montesquieu’s position on corrections and punishment. I think this because punishment should be done in moderation. It should not be done to one extreme or the other. If the punishment is too harsh, then it would be bad for that person. If it’s not harsh enough, then it would be bad for society. If the punishment is not consistent, then there’s no uniformity or transparency. I don’t believe the punishment should be done too public, as it was back in the day. Sure, it’s shaming and the person sometimes deserves it, however it’s not civil. Not everyone wants to see that kind of behavior. I also don’t think the punishment should fit to everyone’s happiness, because then the punishment may not fit the crime. For example, if the law fit the “an eye for an eye” mentality, then everyone would be fighting to have killers killed the same way they killed their victim. This violates so many morals and ethics, not to mention the Eighth Amendment. I just think that Montesquieu’s position fits mine almost perfectly, while the others are way off base. I think that currently, the consistency and transparency of the punishments to some crimes is off. For example, plea deals are taken into account to let them off easier than others are getting. I understand cooperation. I understand the want for bigger fish, so to speak, in the event that law enforcement is going after a mob boss, terrorist, or other major player. However, I do not understand some people getting 53......

Words: 812 - Pages: 4


...residential placement, representing more than 30,000 juvenile offenders. Following the United States’ example, many other countries introduced private prison in the 1990s, and many more are considering the idea today. Setting off a national debate almost instantly, prison privatization emerged in adult corrections when municipal and state governments—driven primarily by concerns over excessive costs and crowding in public facilities—began in 1985 to contract with private firms to run county jails and state prisons. Congress held hearings on prison privatization the next year, and almost every criminal justice professional association took a stand on the issue. Despite the protests of many, privatization has continued apace since then, with the capacity of private secure adult correctional facilities increasing 856 percent between 1991 and 1998. By the end of 1999, fourteen corporations were operating over 150 private correctional facilities for adults in the United States, earning combined annual revenues in excess of a billion dollars. Already a significant owner/operator of juvenile correctional facilities, the private sector began to assume a substantially greater role in juvenile corrections after Congress passed the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act in 1974. This act formally encouraged communities to develop alternatives to traditional incarceration, and privatization emerged as the primary mechanism for deinstitutionalization. In 1999, there were......

Words: 2393 - Pages: 10


...Corrections Branch Submitted by: Joseph Smith CRJ 201: Intro to Criminal Justice Instructor: Janice Bella Submitted on: 1 June 2015 In this paper, I will review the origins of the Corrections and how it helps us today with those who choose to commit crimes. I will also cover the basis of how Constitutional given rights are upheld within the prison system itself, and how the public is involved with the goings on within the prisons. According to the article Why State Prisons by W. David Ball, state prisons in 2012 held approximately 1.3 million people which is almost twice the amount of people in county jails and more than five times the federal prison populations. This number is only estimated to go up as the years go on if left unchecked. Also according to the article, California passed policy to reform their prison and jail population problems, their state prisons now only accept violent offenders and sexual predators rather than all types of felons, with the remaining criminal elements serving their time in local jails. The state prisons began to be overpopulated due to the government taking on more and more prisoners to use as labor (road crews, ditch digging, etc;) and granted the government a flow of surplus cash as a result. That helped the economies then......

Words: 2083 - Pages: 9


...Community corrections is a range of alternative punishments for nonviolent offenders. There are two basic community corrections models in the United States. In the first model, integrated community corrections programs combine sentencing guidelines and judicial discretion ("front-end") with a variety of alternative sanctions and parole and probation options. In the second model, some states have instituted programs in which correctional officials may direct already sentenced offenders into alternative sanction programs and parole and probation options ("back-end"). Both models are designed to help reduce prison overcrowding and are less expensive alternatives to prison. Widespread development of community correction programs in the United States began in the late 1970's as a way to offer offenders, especially those leaving jail or prison, residential services in halfway houses. The first state community correction programs began in Oregon, Colorado, and Minnesota as pilot projects with very little government-funded support. They diverted nonviolent offenders in selected pilot project areas from jails and state prisons into local alternative punishment programs. The programs were referred to as "front-end" sentencing because they allowed judges to sentence offenders to a community-based punishment rather than jail or prison. Rehabilitation programs were the preferred punishment option. In the late 1980's, prison systems across the country began experiencing serious......

Words: 1097 - Pages: 5


...Dan Sullivan Criminal Justice November 25, 2013 Massachusetts Corrections “The Massachusetts Department of Correction is responsible for operating the prison system of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, US Massachusetts houses over 11,400 inmates (about 1,925 are serving life sentences) throughout 18 correctional facilities [2] and employs over 5,200 employees (about 4,000 of whom are correctional officers). The MA DOC also has a tactical unit, a fugitive apprehension unit, a gang intelligence unit, a K-9 team, a Special Reaction Team (SRT), and a Tactical Response Team (TRT). Both of these tactical units are highly trained and are paramilitary teams. The Massachusetts DOC is the largest law enforcement agency in the state of Massachusetts with a staff of 5,200, 4,000 of which are sworn officers. The agency is headquartered in Milford, Massachusetts and headed by Commissioner Luis S. Spencer” ("Massachusetts Department of Correction") “The Department provides a variety of religious services, which are supervised and coordinated by chaplain staff. Volunteer clergy and community churches assist chaplains in the provision of services. Chaplains provide regular religious services, religious education and pastoral care. In addition, chaplaincy services include Bible Study, Prayer Groups, Christian Fellowship, Christian Twelve Step, Parenting Groups, Family Religious Services, Religious Seminars and Holiday Observances. The Department recognizes that Chaplaincy Services are...

Words: 778 - Pages: 4


...goal of these programs is to prevent the individual from repeating the same crimes. If they were to commit further crimes, the individual would represent an additional cost to society. Recidivism incurs substantial courts fees and related costs. It also means that the ex-prisoner would fail to return to society as a functioning and productive individual (a net contributor) and instead continue to represent a severe drain on public resources (a burden on the nation’s finances). The benefits of reducing recidivism By reducing recidivism through prison treatment and rehabilitation programs, society sees a reduction in the overall crime rate. This drop in crime means that less money needs to be spent on building new prisons, employing more correction officers and police officers, and supporting the affiliated enforcement and legal systems. One difficulty is that, with many variables, it can be difficult to reliably quantify these savings. Cost-benefit analyses were attempted by S Aos et al (2001) in a study titled The Comparative Costs and Benefits of Programs to Reduce Crime. A key finding was that some good investment options exist to lower crime rates and related costs for taxpayers, especially programs for juvenile offenders. However, some investments are not so effective. Another key finding was that “even relatively small reductions in crime can be cost beneficial”; some of the best programs delivered a 20-30% reduction in recidivism. When deciding which prison......

Words: 1484 - Pages: 6


...Development of Corrections Women’s prisons before the 1800’s were just as bad as the men’s prisons. The women were often treated like servants and were abused just as the men prisoners were. The only exception to the abuse was pregnant women, but after the women gave birth, they were abused. The prisons were also monitored and watched over by male wards and the women prisoners were mixed in with the male prisoners. By being mixed with the male prisoners the women not only suffered from verbal abuse from the other prisoners and the wardens in the prison, they suffered from sexual abuse. Women prisons have changed since then. They have been separated from men’s prisons and are monitored by women wardens. These prisons were also changed from the traditional prison look to a look that comforts the women in the prisons. The three basic arguments that supported the separation of juvenile prisoners were “the penitentiary regimen was too hard on tender youth, juveniles would learn bad habits from older criminals and be embittered by the experience of confinement and adolescents could be reformed if they were diverted early enough into institutions designed specifically for people their age” (Foster, 2006). If there were no distinction between adult and juvenile prisons there would be children who would possibly get punished as adults and there could be adults who would receive lighter sentences due to the leniency towards juveniles. The purpose of prison......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2


...Development of Corrections In my opinion, I believe that before the 1800s women’s prisons happened to be very developed for the women that committed crimes and caused problems. Before the 1800s, in prisons there happened to be these types of devices that were used, which were called the Brank, and it was used to punish and control the women that happened to be outspoken women and the women that disobeyed their husbands. At this time, things happened to get very bad for women. Before the 1800 century, the type of punishment that was used for women happened to be given in many different forms which really caused problems during this time. Some of the women that happened to be serious offenders happened to be hung or even burned. Plus, there happened to be some women that were sold as slaves to others. Since then women’s prisons have changed completely. If they were to commit a crime they will be punished for it, but they will be punished in the proper way without violating their rights. A number of individuals happen to argue that the 1800 century and the early 1900 century happened to be a period in which the change of the juvenile criminals would have taken place. There were a lot of key features that were in the juvenile justice system which happened to cause tension between the systems of punishment and reformation, plus the separation of all of the juveniles from adults of the criminal justice system. I believe that if there wasn’t a difference between the......

Words: 421 - Pages: 2