Cultural Differences Amongst Social Interactions

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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION AND CARE key lessons from research for policy makers

An independent report submitted to the European Commission by the NESSE networks of experts


This is an independent report commissioned by the European Commission's DirectorateGeneral for Education and Culture. The views expressed are those of independent experts and do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Commission. The main author of this report is Helen Penn, currently Professor of Early Childhood in the Cass School of Education, University of East London, UK, and a member of the NESSE network of experts. Drafts of this report benefited from comments and advice from other NESSE network members and from other experts in this field. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. The electronic version of this report is available at: For further information on this report and for printed copies you can contact: Dr. Angelos Agalianos European Commission Directorate-General for Education and Culture Tel.: +32-2-29.55.098

© European Commission, 2009 ISBN: 978-92-79-12470-9



Investing in quality Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) is crucial. It is at this stage that the foundations are laid for subsequent learning and achievements. Also, research shows that investing in quality ECEC provision contributes to breaking the cycle of disadvantage. Governments need to believe in ECEC- and to invest in it. Since 2006, a series of European policy initiatives and events have highlighted the importance of quality ECEC provision. These include the 2006 Commission's Communication Efficiency and…...

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