Deforestation in Indonesia and Philippines

In: Social Issues

Submitted By millieshalita
Words 518
Pages 3
Deforestation in Indonesia and Philippines

Deforestation has been a major issue on the global agenda for over 20

years. This problem has effected people, government and business around

the world. The purpose of this essay is to compare the deforestation in two

Asian countries which are Indonesia and Philippines. It looks at the

incidences of the deforestation, the main causes and some government

policies in these two countries.

Deforestation is a major issue in Indonesia and it is getting worse rapidly.

The loss of primary forest is increasing by an average of 47,600 hectares

every year. According to a paper published in the June 29th edition of the

journal Nature Climate Change, Indonesia has now overtaken Brazil as the

country with the highest rate of annual loss in primary forest in the world

(R.C., 2014). It was found that the Indonesia rapidly lost 840,000 hectares

of the forest (Hellmann, 2014). Indonesia. The huge destructions that cause

the lost to Indonesia rainforests is the carbon-rich peatlands for palm oil

and paper threatens. Peatlands store huge amount of carbon and

Indonesia's peatlands are vast. It stores around 35 billion tonnes of carbon.

This is the major reason why Indonesia is also one of the world's largest

emitters of climate changing greenhouse gases. Moreover, huge amount of

carbon dioxide are being released from deforestation on peat soils.

Seventeen out of sixty six percent of all climate change emissions came

from the plantations on peat soils (Cronin, 2010). Forest loss is also due to

the production of palm oil. As oil palm grows best where rainforests occur,

more rainforests in Indonesia are being cleared to meet the increasing

demand. Clearing rainforests has resulted in direct problem that affect

wildlife such as rhinos, elephants,…...

Similar Documents

Deforestation

... Causes of Deforestation: Agriculture - As demands on agricultural products rise more and more land is brought under cultivation for which forests are cleared, grass-lands ploughed, uneven grounds leveled, marshes drained and even land under water is reclaimed. Plantations and commercial agriculture - A major force behind deforestation is commercial agriculture: Wealthy companies clear large areas of forest to be converted into farmland. Commercial agriculture such as: Palm oil and acacia trees, cattle ranching, soybeans, etc. Urbanization - Industries and towns are developing in former rainforest. Hydroelectric power - Rivers are dammed and huge areas of forest are flooded as a result. Transport - Transport networks are built through the forest to link settlements. Industries - Forest are cleared to support industrial activities and extraction of resource, Two main types are: Logging for timber and mining for minerals. Forest Fires - Fire is often used to clear forested land, as it is cheaper than employing laborers and bringing in machinery to remove the trees and vegetation. The vegetation is cleared and left to dry out, then the area is set on fire. Burning of forest has taken place on a small scale for many thousands of years, by small groups of subsistence farmers, this is known as slash and burn agriculture. Mining - Large areas of forest are cleared for the open-cast mining of minerals such as iron, gold and copper. Roads - Road shave......

Words: 2193 - Pages: 9

Indonesia

...COUNTRY RISK ANALYSIS INDONESIA D Dr.H. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono President (RI) Short facts : Short facts Official name Capital city Government type Currency Population Official language Geography The republic of Indonesia Jakarta Republic Rupiah (IDR) 236 million people Bahasa Indonesia 17,508 islands & 1,919,440 sq km of land area & coastline 54,716kms Continued... : Continued... Ethnicity GDP GDP per capita Revenues Expenses Inflation rate 85% muslims, 10% christians, 2% muslims US$932.1 billion US $3,900 $92.62 billion $98.88 billion 5.3% GDP growth : GDP growth Setting up Business Activities and a Company in Indonesia : Setting up Business Activities and a Company in Indonesia To establish a business in Indonesia, if you do not require a local legal entity for the investment proposed, you could choose to appoint an Agent or Distributor, or set up a Representative Office. Many foreign investors at the early stage of entering the Indonesia market choose to set up an Agency Agreement or Representative Office, then later after the business starts to grow they will apply for a Foreign Direct Investment Company (FDI) status. To establish a representative office, the company needs to issue 3 letters : To establish a representative office, the company needs to issue 3 letters Letter of Intent - stating the intention of the company to establish a representative office Letter of Appointment - stating the appointment of the chief representative Letter......

Words: 1647 - Pages: 7

Deforestation

...UNIT I DEFORESTATION CHAPTER 1 What is deforestation? Deforestation is the removal or damage of vegetation in a forest to the extent that it no longer supports its natural flora and fauna. In other words, deforestation can be defined as the transformation of forest land to non-forest uses where forest land includes lands under agro-forestry and shifting cultivation, and not simply closed canopy primary forests (FAO/UNEP, 1982). However, this definition does not include “logging”. More inclusive was Myers’s 1980 definition, where deforestation refers, “generally to the complete destruction of forest cover through clearing for agriculture … [so] … that not a tree remains, and the land is given over to non-forest purposes … [and where] very heavy and unduly negligent logging … [result in a] … decline of biomass and depletion of ecosystem services … . So severe that the residual forest can no longer qualify as forest in any practical sense of the world.” Alan Graigner (1980, AS quoted in Saxena and Nautiyal, 1997) asserts that selective logging does not “lead to forest clearance and does not constitute deforestation”, whereas Norman Myers (1980, 1993) thinks that logging is crucial because, although it may only affect a small proportion of trees per hectare, it damages wide areas and is the precursor of penetration by the forest farmers. For the purpose of this study, the FAO’s latest definitions (1993) will be used. The FAO defines forests as “ecosystems with a minimum...

Words: 17310 - Pages: 70

Deforestation

...DEFORESTATION By: Madan Thapa Economics 2302 Tarrant County College Southeast Abstract This paper gives the definition of deforestation and also shows the effects of it in the environment. This paper talks about the programs that are implemented in three major parts of the world Brazil in South America, Congo Basin in Africa and Indonesia in Asia. A forest is a home of many animals, insects, and plants. Cutting down trees means making all of these creatures homeless and make them extinct. Deforestation means cutting down trees of a forest for other purposes such as to make a farm, for mining, to make roads and for grazing of cattle. Deforestation have a very serious effect on environment, but also people don’t stop cutting down trees because they need money, a space to build their houses, and to make space for agriculture as well. Cutting down tries without care have severe effect in the whole ecosystem. Although the effect of deforestation is high, the products made from the trees are a large part of the economy in both developed and developing countries. The trees are used in building houses, making papers and also for heating and cooking purposes. The cutting down of trees can help in increasing countries GDP for short term, but at the end it causes many devastating effects which leads into decrease in the economy. This can be seen in many developing countries. The major effect of deforestation can be seen in developing countries like Congo, Indonesia, and......

Words: 894 - Pages: 4

Deforestation

...Jill Cottle Econ 2302 Professor Nervo July 30, 2013 Deforestation and its Effects Deforestation is a prosperous business. Land is cleared to make room for infrastructures and other transportation which links once inaccessible populations to valued marketplaces and vice-versa. The scope of the problem with deforestation has been seen world-wide from the Brazilian Amazon, Indonesia, Russia, and even in the United States. Deforestation has a big payoff in the beginning; as trees are cleared, the lumber is sold and the bustle surrounding deforestation entices migrant laborers who profit from the freshly accessible acreage, lumber, and natural resources (Walsh, 2009). While deforestation is beneficial in the beginning, the ecological effects of the deforestation take a toll on our environment. Many studies have been done to analyze the effects of deforestation in and around local villages, as well as mountainous regions. Each study has a purpose for looking into the effects of deforestation. One study looks at the effect of deforestation and the connection within malaria-endemic areas, specifically in the village of Cacao in French Guiana. In this study the authors are looking at the run off issue associated with the endemic of malaria. They used a group of 839 people living permanently within the village between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 (Basurko et al, 2013). The information about the number of people for each domiciliary, the total of confirmed cases......

Words: 1169 - Pages: 5

Deforestation in Indonesia

...raw material. Back in the last decade, Indonesia as the largest pulp and paper producer in South-East Asia ran this industry based on its 141.4 million hectares tropical rainforest covering. However, serious deforestation has occurred due to the over-development of the paper and pulp industry. More and more rare species of animals and plants are becoming extinct, not to mention global warming, water loss and soil erosion. This report will discuss the said deforestation and its effects on Indonesian environment and its community, and also focus on analyzing the role of various sectors, namely thepaper and pulp product buyers, environmental non-government organizations and the Indonesian government,within the paper and pulp industry. Asia Paper & Pulp Group(APP) and Asia Pacific Resources International Limited (APRIL) are used as examples of the paper and pulp manufacturers. The report will be concluded by providing recommendations regarding the issue. Indonesia overview Indonesia maintains the highest rate of illegal logging among other countries, up to 60% of timber production. Corruption has been a prevalent issue in Indonesia, and was even worse after the end of the Suharto government system. Deforestation rate is excessive from 1.3 to 2 million hectares every year. Indonesia represents about one-quarter of global tropical wood production and exports, and about half of global tropical hardwood plywood exports. Indonesia is one of the prime targets of......

Words: 1898 - Pages: 8

Deforestation

...Deforestation Environmental Science SCI-204 iLab 1 People relay on products from rainforest everyday and never realize it. Today, people around the world use woods that come from rainforest for products like desk, flooring, instruments, and many other products made from exotic woods. “Tropical forests yield some of the most beautiful and valuable woods in the world, such as teak, mahogany, rosewood, balsa, sandalwood and countless lesser-known species.” (Rainforest Alliance, 2014) Many medications are made up from plants and trees that are only found in rainforest. “Some 120 prescription drugs sold worldwide today are derived directly from rainforest plants.” (Talk, 2014) Many food products come from rainforest. Things like coffee beans, bananas, nuts, chocolate, and spices all can be found in the rainforest. “At least 3000 fruits are found in the rainforests; of these only 200 are now in use in the Western World.” (Taylor, 2012) Another product people use everyday is oxygen. The Amazon produces more than 20% of the world’s oxygen. “The Amazon Rainforest has been described as the "Lungs of our Planet" because it provides the essential environmental world service of continuously recycling carbon dioxide into oxygen.” (Taylor, 2012) The next time you inhale, and fill your lungs with life giving oxygen be thankful to the rainforest. The rainforest has helped the world with many products, and all of them are important to everyday life. When you go to your local......

Words: 1496 - Pages: 6

Philippine Biodiversity

...PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY Deforestation Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.[1] Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed.[not in citation given][neutrality is disputed] However in temperate climates, the removal of all trees in an area[not in citation given]—in conformance with sustainable forestry practices—is correctly described as regeneration harvest.[2] In temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic.[3] Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction.[4][5] Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has also been used in war to deprive the enemy of cover for its forces......

Words: 3188 - Pages: 13

Deforestation

...2-4-2014 | | Amazon Deforestation | | Deforestation is the loss or destruction of naturally occurring forests. It is primarily due to human activities such as cutting trees for fuel, slash-and-burn agriculture, clearing land for livestock grazing, oil extraction, and many others. Deforestation is considered to be one of the contributing factors to global climate change. It can occur around the world, even though it’s more common in tropical rainforests. Countries with significant deforestation currently or in the recent years include Brazil, Indonesia, Thailand, and parts of Eastern Europe. Though deforestation has increased rapidly in the last fifty years, it has been known to be practiced through history. Deforestation is typically done to make more land available for housing and urbanization and cattle ranching. Most of the logging industry that contributes to deforestation is done illegally, as reports from the World Wildlife Fund state. Common methods include burning trees and clear cutting, which is the controversial practice of complete removal of a given area of forest. In Brazil, you will find the Amazon rainforest. It is 5.7 million square kilometers and the largest continuous rainforest in the entire world. Since 1970, one sixth of the Amazon has been cleared mainly for ethanol production and cattle. While techniques like slash-and-burn provide a short term boost in agricultural production, rainforest soil is typically very thin and does not......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Deforestation

...Essay Deforestation Leads to Serious Problems In the 21st century, the world is advancing to new heights in the field of technology. Human beings have made every facility for their better life. But human beings did not care about nature. Deforestation is the result of unawareness of human beings about nature. Deforestation has direct relationship with success of human beings. Thousand years ago, more than 80% of total land area was covered with forests. In present days, less than 12% of total land area is covered with forests (Hermy 362). Is cutting of trees beneficial for society? Does it lead to serious problems? Some people argue that deforestation is deforestation is necessary for success of many government projects and humanity. However, I would argue that the environment, wild life and human life are negatively affected by deforestation. It has large number of demerits. It has degraded environment by global warming and acid rain in different areas of world. Moreover, deforestation destroys the natural home of wild animals. Wild animals have no homes for living in most of parts of the world. Deforestation disturbs human life by depletion of ozone layer of the earth, increase in concentration of carbon dioxide in environment and reduction in the number of trees, which are used in the production of many medicines. These problems had not fixed. These are increasing day by day with the rate of cutting trees. To illustrate, deforestation has brought bad......

Words: 1548 - Pages: 7

Deforestation

...Deforestation Identifying the Problem Deforestation is the removal of related ecosystems or rainforests into ecosystems that are less biodiverse such as croplands, pastures, or plantations. Also, more people need wood to make furniture, houses, and many more everyday things. An estimated 18 million acres of forest are lost each year. Believe it or not but in 100 years if the current rate of deforestation continues all forests will be gone. This will cause terrible effects on the global climate and it will get rid of the majority of plant and animal species on the planet. Deforestation is mainly due to our acts that are totally against the laws of nature. To create new land area for people forests are being destroyed. This trend shows the greed of humans and the increasing needs. There are two different types of deforestation: Clear Cutting and Slash and Burn. Clear Cutting is cutting down a large area of trees that are standing at the same time. Slash and Burn is when people cut down all the foliage in a forest and burn it to access the nutrients. (4) A lot of the countries with high amounts of deforestation are the ones that are developing. For the countries to grow and develop their economies they need access to more resources, employment of people, logging to manufacture more timber products, and agricultural expansion. The solution to getting all these positive things is deforestation. The world’s highest rates of deforestation are happening in the......

Words: 2977 - Pages: 12

Deforestation

...Deforestation Deforest is defined as the cutting down and removal of all or most of the trees in a forested area. (Dictionary.com) The action of deforestation damages the quality of the land. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. (Wikipedia) Deforestation affects the environment greatly and is one of the primary contributors to climate change. When deforestation occurs, carbon dioxide is released and remains in the atmosphere. As the carbon dioxide accumulates it catches radiation, which leads to heat. Oxygen doesn’t hold radiation like greenhouse gasses do. The heat that is produced is considered global warming. Trees store carbon and when it is cut down that carbon is released into the air. According to the World Carfree Network (WCN), cars and trucks account for about 14 percent of global carbon emissions, while most analysts attribute upwards of 15 percent to deforestation. (Scientificamerican.com) Another aspect of the environment that deforestation affects is the water cycle. Trees help perpetuate the water cycle by returning water vapor back into the atmosphere. Without trees to fill these roles, many former forest lands can quickly become barren deserts. (Society) Water vapor is a greenhouse gas. The flow of water vapor and carbon dioxide is disrupted directly by cutting down trees. The water that the trees draw from the ground is eventually emitted into the air. When the land is......

Words: 3589 - Pages: 15

Deforestation

...will discuss deforestation across the globe and how it affects the world’s ecosystems. Everyday, a piece of Earth’s ecosystem is demolished by human hands for the conquest for timber, minerals, and other resources. Forests cover 2% of the Earth’s surface, 6% of the landmass, and yet they house half the animal and plant species while rainforests cover twice that area. Deforestation is occurring across the globe on a scale that if it were continue at its present rate the forests could disappear within the next one to two hundred years. This raises concerns and questions. First, why should we be concerned? Second, what kind of damage could deforestation lead to animal and plant species, human existence, and to mother Earth and its atmosphere? Third, how and why the rainforests benefit the human race. To answer these questions, this paper will discuss where the most deforestation is occurring and the consequences of deforestation. Tropical rainforests are defined by two primary factors: location and amount of rainfall they receive. Rainforests receive from 4 to 8 meters of rain a year. Most of the rainfall is blocked by heavy vegetation, and water reaches the forest floor by rolling down branches and trunks. A distinctive characteristic is that the rainforests have no seasonality or no dry or cold season of slower growth. In addition, they are the Earth’s oldest living ecosystems. The rainforests are a priceless part of mother earth and their removal through deforestation would......

Words: 1455 - Pages: 6

Working Overview in Sri Lanka, Philippines, Indonesia

...An Overview of Working Conditions in Sportswear Factories in Indonesia, Sri Lanka & the Philippines April 2011 Introduction In the final quarter of 2010 the ITGLWF carried out research in major sportswear producer countries to examine working conditions in factories producing for multinational brands and retailers such as adidas, Dunlop, GAP, Greg Norman, Nike, Speedo, Ralph Lauren and Tommy Hilfiger (for a full list of the brands and retailers please see Annex 1). The researchers collected information on working conditions at 83 factories, comprising 18 factories in Indonesia, 17 in Sri Lanka and 47 in the Philippines. In Indonesia researchers focused on 5 key locations of sportswear production: Bekasi, Bogor, Jakarta, Serang and Tangerang. In Sri Lanka researchers examined conditions in the major sportswear producing factories, mainly located in Export Processing Zones, and in the Philippines researchers focused on the National Capital Region, Region III and Region IV-A. All of the factories covered are producing for export to the EU and North America, and many of those in the Philippines are also exporting to Japan. Collectively the 83 factories employed over 100,000 workers, the majority of whom were females under the age of 35. This report contains an executive summary of the findings, based on information collected from workers, factory management, supervisors, human resource staff and trade union officials. The research was carried out by the ITGLWF’s......

Words: 6059 - Pages: 25

The Economy of the Philippines and Its Neighbors: Indonesia and Malaysia

...The Economy of the Philippines and Its Neighbors: Indonesia and Malaysia By Larry Gulley In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for MGMT 220: Individual Project 3 AIU June 30, 2012 Abstract The economy of the Philippines, as well as that of its neighbors, Indonesia and Malaysia, has weathered some rough patches. This area of the world has not lived up to its potential in spite of its naturally rich resources. But they are showing improvement, especially Malaysia. These countries compete with tourism and the services area. They also have strengths in agriculture and manufacturing. Table of Contents Economy of the Philippines Speaker Notes……………………………………………...1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………4 Economy of the Philippines…………………………………………………………....4 Economy of the Philippines 2012……………………………………………………..4 Philippines Economic Strengths………………………………………………………4 Economy of Indonesia………………………………………………………………….5 Economy of Indonesia 2012…………………………………………………………...5 Indonesia Economic Strengths………………………………………………………..5 Economy of Malaysia…………………………………………………………………...6 Economy of Malaysia 2012…………………………………………………………….6 Malaysia Economic Strengths…………………………………………………………6 Impacts of Economic Strengths………………………………………………………..7 Investing in the Philippines: Management Issues……………………………………7 Investing in the Philippines: Management......

Words: 1268 - Pages: 6