Describe and Evaluate 2 Biological Treatments for Schizophrenia

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By bp123
Words 907
Pages 4
The dopamine hypothesis states that an excess of/ sensitivity to dopamine leads to positive symptoms of schizophrenia. There are two antipsychotics used to decrease the effect of dopamine: Typical antipsychotics (1st generation drugs) and Atypical antipsychotics (2nd generation drugs).1st generation drugs reduce the effect of dopamine and therefore mainly reduce positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Typical antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, are dopamine antagonists and work by binding to dopamine receptors, in particular D2, in the synapses thus preventing dopamine itself from binding to receptors and therefore blocking their action. As a result positive symptoms of schizophrenia are reduced. 2nd generation drugs are a newer generation of antipsychotics, such as clozapine, and work by attaching to specific D2 dopamine receptors only and serotonin. They only temporarily occupy the D2 dopamine receptors and then rapidly dissociate to allow normal dopamine transmission.

The use of drugs for treating SOS is not a long term cure and if the drugs are stopped the symptoms of schizophrenia may come back. This can lead to the ‘revolving door syndrome’ where a SOS would leave the institution because their condition has improved and as a result they stop taking the drugs. But then their symptoms would return and the SOS would have to be re-admitted to the institution often with worsened symptoms. This can result in the SOS needing to take a higher dose of drugs as if they suddenly stop taking them and then start once again the drugs they were taking before are very unlikely to have the same effect as before. Therefore the SOS would have to have a higher dosage of drugs and would need to be kept on maintenance dose for long periods of time, increasing the risk of a greater amount of side effects.

Kane (1988) looked into the effect of 1st generation and 2nd…...

Similar Documents

Describe and Discuss Aetiologies of Schizophrenia.

...Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a breakdown of though process and by deficit of typical emotional responses. This is characterized as psychosis as people suffering from this disorder are not in touch with reality. Symptoms of schizophrenia include positive, negative and secondary symptoms. According to Schneider, positive symptoms include hallucinations whereby you hear voices- usually arguments, repeating of thoughts, derogatory, obscene voices which may order the patient to commit acts of violence. Positive symptoms also include delusions whereby patients believe other people are trying to harm them as well as personal grandeur where they believe they are much greater, more powerful and more influential than they really are. According to Slater and Roth, negative symptoms of schizophrenia include a lack of energy, lack of interest in life and hygiene as well as the inability to make decisions. This is referred to as avoilation. Thought process disorder is also another negative symptom. This is the inability to keep to the point, words are thrown together and the inability to finish sentences. Patients experiencing negative symptoms of schizophrenia may also experience loss of emotional responses as well as sudden mood change. Secondary symptoms are additional symptoms that occur from having schizophrenia. These include depression, loss of job and friends etc. There are three main types of schizophrenia. Disorganised, catatonic and paranoid......

Words: 1259 - Pages: 6

Biological Treatment

...treatmentChemosphere 50 (2003) 145–153 Biological treatment process of air loaded with an ammonia and hydrogen sulfide mixture Luc Malhautier a,*, Catherine Gracian a, Jean-Claude Roux a, Jean-Louis Fanlo a, Pierre Le Cloirec b a Ecole des Mines d’Als, Laboratoire du Gnie de l’Environnement Industriel, 6, Avenue de Clavires, 30319 Ales Cedex, France e e e b Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Dpartement Systmes Energtiques et Environnement, La Chantrerie, 4, rue Alfred Kastler, e e e BP 30723, 44307 NANTES Cedex 3, France Received 12 June 2001; received in revised form 10 July 2002; accepted 10 July 2002 Abstract The physico-chemical characteristics of granulated sludge lead us to develop its use as a packing material in air biofiltration. Then, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential of unit systems packed with this support in terms of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions treatment. Two laboratory scale pilot biofilters were used. A volumetric load of 680 g H2 S mÀ3 empty bed dayÀ1 and 85 g NH3 mÀ3 empty bed dayÀ1 was applied for eight weeks to a unit called BGSn (column packed with granulated sludge and mainly supplied with hydrogen sulfide); a volumetric load of 170 g H2 S mÀ3 empty bed dayÀ1 and 340 g NH3 mÀ3 empty bed dayÀ1 was applied for eight weeks to the other called BGNs (column packed with granulated sludge and mainly supplied with ammonia). Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide elimination occur in the biofilters......

Words: 6269 - Pages: 26

Outline and Evaluate Biological Approach to Stress

...Outline and evaluate the Biological approach to abnormality The biological approach suggests that psychological disorders should be treated medically, as this model puts forward the idea that any psychological abnormality is causes by genetic factors and body malfunctions. The model as 4 different elements that may be the cause of psychological abnormalities; viral infections, biochemistry, brain damage, genetic factors. Several studies have been carried out by different researchers to investigate the theories of the model. Biochemical elements, is one of the highly researched parts of this model, where Weinberger in 2002 carried out research that suggested the 22nd chromosome doubled the risk of developing schizophrenia, another study carried out by Zubieta in 2000, where PET scans helped figured out that 30% higher levels of dopamine, serotin and norepinephrine were i9n people with bipolar disorder. On the other hand Janowsky carried out a study to show how biochemical imbalances lead to manic depression. While souse carried out a study in 2010 where genomes of 1000 autistics and 1200 non autistic participants, results showed that autistic participants carry 20% more copy number variation which suggests that this may be caused due to genetics. The viral infections elements were also researched by brown in 2000 where findings suggested that there’s a link between respiratory infections and the second trimester of pregnancy, which may results in the foetus developing......

Words: 448 - Pages: 2

Explanations and Treatment of Abnormal Behaviour Schizophrenia

...Explanations and Treatment of Abnormal Behaviour Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a type of abnormal psychology. Abnormality can be defined in three ways as a deviation from statistical norm, a deviation from the social norms and cultural relativism. However there are problems with defining abnormalities in terms of a system that relies on subjective judgment of a person’s behaviour. For example, someone experiencing hallucinations in Puerto Rico would be attributed to external forces (e.g. Spiritual visitations). However in the western world, the same hallucinations would be considered abnormal (Berry et al 1992). Mental Disorders are classified today by using, The Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria 295.40 (Schizophrenia), and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision(IDC-10) are used to aid in the psychiatric diagnosis of the disorder. Introduction The term ‘Schizophrenia’ was first used in 1911 by Swiss psychiatrist, Eugen Bleuler, and literally means ‘split mind’. He used the term to describe a general class of disorders that are characterised by a number of similar symptoms. These were: * Disorganised thought processes. * A split between intellect and emotion. * A split between intellect and external reality Schizophrenia typically begins in early adulthood; between the ages of 15 and 25. Men tend to get develop schizophrenia somewhat earlier than women; whereas most......

Words: 1782 - Pages: 8

Outline and Evaluate One or More Biological Therapy for Schizophrenia

...One biological explanation for schizophrenia is genetics. This theory suggests that a person’s genetic makeup determines whether they develop schizophrenia or not.  One way of testing this theory is using twin studies. This works on the principle that twins share more genetic material than ordinary people (MZ share 100% and DZ twins share 50%). These studies are conducted using one twin who has already developed schizophrenia, and predicting how likely the other twin is to develop it. One of these studies was conducted by Rosenthal. He studied 16 pairs of MZ twins that were brought up apart; one out of each pair had schizophrenia. He found that 10 out of16 of the co-twins developed the disorder. This is known as a concordance rate. Rosenthal’s study had a high concordance rate with 62.5%. This suggests that genetics are involved in the development of schizophrenia. Although Rosenthal’s sample was small, it was extremely specific. It allowed him to study the relative effects of nature and nurture by eliminating the influence of nurture (as the twins were brought up apart, concordance was solely due to genetics). Another twin study was conducted by Gottesman. This was a meta-analysis of over 40 studies. Gottesman found a concordance rate of 48% between MZ twins. This also suggests that genetics are involved in the development and maintenance of schizophrenia. Although the fact that it was a meta-analysis means that the sample was large and therefore valid, the......

Words: 709 - Pages: 3

Describe and Evaluate 2 Models of Behaviour

...Abnormal Psychology - Models of Abnormality Behavioral Model Taking over psychology in the first half of this century, particularly in the USA, the behavioural model focuses on the observable behaviour of a person. Its assumptions were that behaviour is primarily the result of the environment rather then genetic and so the behaviourists reject the view that abnormal behaviour has a biological basis. the focus is on reinforcing positive behaviors and not reinforcing maladaptive behaviors. Maladaptive behaviours can be un-learnt by changing the environment. Behaviourists have a deterministic view believe that our actions are based on life experience. This model is completely opposite to the biological model. Classical conditioning is behaviour learned through stimulus-response association. Stimulus being the environment and response being the reaction given. This is an early form of behaviourism pioneered by Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov (1897) demonstrated classical conditioning by using dogs. the dogs would salivate every time meat was put before them he then rang a bell. Eventually the dogs learned to associate the sound of the bell so when they heard the sound of the bell they would salivate even though there was no meat present. Watson and Rayner (1920) proposed that children learn phobias through paired associations. It is suggested that through classical conditioning people can learn to associate an unconditioned response with a neutral stimulus. Therefore......

Words: 2496 - Pages: 10

Biological Approach to Treatment of Depression.

...Presented here it is a critical evaluation of biological approach for treatment of depression. Antidepressant are the most common biological treatment for this type of disorder, but treatments such as Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), alteration in sleep patterns following body temperature cycle are also used to relief the symptoms of depression. However antidepressant drugs provide an effective and inexpensive help, studies have found that the behavioural effects of these drugs could take over two weeks before showing any benefit and any perceived effect before this period would be a placebo effect (Kalat, 2001). Some studies proposed the existence of a two models markers for depression: Biological/endogenous & psychological/reactive depression. Based on this assumption an endogenous depression would only respond to a pharmacological treatment while a psychological depression would only respond to psychological treatment (Free & Oei, 1989). Further we will evaluate the effectiveness of a combined (cognitive-behavioural therapy and antidepressant) intervention in order to achieve a better outcome on treatment of depression. Depression is one of the most common illnesses and is characterised by symptoms such as loss of energy, sadness, difficulty in concentration and in the most serious cases the patient can contemplate or commit suicide. Research found that women are more likely to suffer from depression, with depressive episodes more probable to occur between 25 to 44......

Words: 1773 - Pages: 8

Evaluate the Biological Treatments of Depression.

...However the 33% of patients that felt better after taking the placebo drug suggests that the cause of depression is not all down to biological reasons but possibly cognitive too and that it may be about the way we think. There were factors that caused limitations to this study, the study was correlational, and this means that the cause and effect was not established between depression and the supposed cause. Hollon did a follow up study to see whether or not SSRIs are effective in treating the actual cause of depression or not. He found that those who were withdrawn from cognitive therapy had a relapse rate of 31% and those withdrawn from drug therapy had a relapse rate of 76%. This shows that drugs only treat the symptoms of depression rather than the actual underlying cause of depression. Therefore it is palliative. It is clear that drugs do not necessarily offer a long term cure as in many cases; symptoms recur when the drugs are no longer taken. To argue about appropriateness, MAOIs are not appropriate as they are associated with life threatening side effects such as cardiovascular disease and strokes. Many of the foods consumed in a normal diet contain tyramine which reacts adversely with MAOIs. Patients who are prescribed with MAOIs must restrict their diets. This is a hassle; the issue is that the patients end up stopping the treatment because they feel that the hassles and the side effects are much worse than the actual depression. However more recently, there has......

Words: 768 - Pages: 4

Describe and Evaluate the Biological Method of Psychopathology (12 Marks)

...Describe and evaluate the biological method of psychopathology (12 Marks) By Amy Smith The biological model (which is also known as ‘the somatic model’) assumes that all psychological disorders are physical illnesses. This model of psychopathology labels mental disorders like this and therefore has both positive and negative outcomes. The biological model states that the causes of mental disorders are normally down to one or more of the following four; genetics, neurotransmitters, infections and brain injury. Neurotransmitters are when there is too much or too little of a particular neurotransmitter such as an increased level of dopamine can lead to schizophrenia. People can increase their dopamine levels by taking drugs such as cocaine which therefore is why schizophrenia is linked so much with cocaine. A piece of research which I have studied is the Gottesman study. This was the study of the meta-analysis twins. Gottesman studied approximately 40 twins (monozygotic and dizygotic twins) and found that the monozygotic twins had a 48% chance of developing schizophrenia if one twin had schizophrenia already, however in dizygotic twins there was only a 17% chance. This piece of research proves that genes are a reason for developing psychological illnesses. The treatments associated with the biological method are drugs such as medication to change the neurotransmitter levels in the brain which can therefore relieve symptoms of the mental illnesses. Another treatment is......

Words: 463 - Pages: 2

Compare and Contrast Psychological and Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia

...Compare and contrast psychological and biological explanations of schizophrenia. Jessica F Smith University Of Sussex Schizophrenia has been termed a heterogeneous group of disorders with varied etiologies (Walker, Kestler, Bollini, & Hochman, 2004) which includes biological, social, cognitive and psychodynamic perspectives. To progress knowledge of schizophrenia, this essay focuses on how the biological and psychological explanations are independent and interdependent and how they may differentiate from one another. This includes: how our biological predisposition, neuro transmitter dysfunction and genetic inheritance, affects how people with schizophrenia respond to social environments, the importance of socio-economic factors and their ability to shape psychotic symptoms, and how people with schizophrenia have faulty cognitions, which arguably develop from social influence and upbringing. The overruling theory, that is important in explanations of schizophrenia, is known as the Diathesis Stress Model (Davey, 2011), which identifies that psychotic symptoms arise from a combination of both biological predisposition and environmental stress. Servan-Schreiber, Bruno, Carter, & Cohen, (1998) alleviate that dopamine is an important neurotransmitter with a function in regulating movement and guiding attention. The dopamine hypothesis suggests that the dysfunction of movement and attention in those with schizophrenia may be a result of excess dopamine due to an......

Words: 2340 - Pages: 10

Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia (24 Marks)

...Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia AO1- (4 marks) Biological explanations of schizophrenia argue that the causes of schizophrenia and physiological rather than psychological. Evidence to support this comes from research into genetics, as well as biochemical factors. Firstly, genetic research has considered rates of schizophrenia found in biological relatives, monozygotic twins (MZ) and dizygotic twins (DZ). This research includes family studies. Schizophrenia is more common among biological relatives with schizophrenia and the closer then family member e.g. a sister the greater the risk of developing schizophrenia. They found children with 2 schizophrenic parents have a concordance rate of 46% compared with children who have one schizophrenic parent, concordance rate is 13%. In addition, MZ twins have a higher concordance rate at 40.4% than DZ twins at 7.4% in terms of developing schizophrenia. Researchers have also tried to find twins separated at birth and at least one twin was diagnosed with schizophrenia. Gottesman and Shields found 58% of twins were concordant for schizophrenia. In contrast, more recent studies, using blind studies, have reported lower concordance rates for MZ twins. However, it is still arguing findings support the genetic inheritance of schizophrenia. Similarly, adopted children are looked at to test whether schizophrenia is an environmental influence or genetically inherited. They have been looking at children who were adopted and......

Words: 1141 - Pages: 5

Biological Therapies for Schizophrenia

...Critically discuss biological therapies for schizophrenia (8+16) The first biological therapy used to treat schizophrenia is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). ECT is only used for severely depressed patients, who have failed to respond to psychotherapy and medication. It is used usually when there is a large risk of suicide because it produces much quicker results than drugs. When the treatment is given an electrode is placed on the non-dominant side of the brain above the temple and the second is placed in the middle of the forehead or both can be placed on each temple. The patient is then given an injection which makes them unconscious before the electric shock is given. A nerve blocking agent is also given to the patient to prevent them contracting their muscles during the treatment avoiding possible injuries such as fractures. The patient is also given oxygen to compensate for their breathing during the procedure. An electric current of around 0.6amps is then given for around half a second which passes through the brain. The current produces a seizure lasting up to one minute, which then affects the entire brain. ECT is usually given 3 times a week with the patient requiring 3 to 15 treatments. However this is often used as a last result if all other options have failed as Abrams concluded that after using it for 50 years that we are still no closer to understanding why it works. It is known that it brings about a change to the brain but what change it makes cannot...

Words: 648 - Pages: 3

Biological Explanations for Schizophrenia

...Outline and evaluate 2 biological explanations for schizophrenia.’ 24 Marks One biological explanations for schizophrenia is genetic factors, which can be studied through twin studies. If the concordance rate is 100% in MZ twins it means that the characteristic is genetically determined because monozygotic twins share the same genes and environment. This was shown by Gottesman and Shields, who reviewed the results of 5 twin studies looking for concordance rates for schizophrenia. These studies looked at 210 MZ twins and 319 DZ twins. It was found that in MZ twins there was a concordance rate of 35-58% compared with dizygotic (DZ) twin rates that ranged from 9-26%. They also found a concordance rate in MZ twins of 75-91% when the sample was restricted to the most severe form of schizophrenia. This can show that there is a link with genetics and schizophrenia. However, the twin studies have all assumed that the shared environmental effects for MZ and DZ twins are equal which may be incorrect. In addition twins are not representative of the wider population. This is because it is a very small sample and there are very few MZ twins in the population and only 1% are Schizophrenic. This shows the sample may not be generalizable to the public. In addition family studies support the idea that there is a genetic influence in schizophrenia. For example, if a parents is schizophrenic and a child becomes schizophrenic it would be likely that genetic factors responsible......

Words: 1021 - Pages: 5

Describe and Evaluate the Psychological Therapies for Schizophrenia.

...Describe and evaluate the psychological therapies for schizophrenia. Cognitive behavioural therapy has multiple different approaches; Tarrier used detailed interview techniques and found that schizophrenics can often identify triggers to the onset of their psychotic symptoms and the participants find their own methods to cope with the distress caused by hallucinations. These strategies include: distractions, concentrations and positive self-talk. Other strategies include initiation or withdrawal from social contact, relation techniques, such as breathing exercises.73% of the sample reported that these strategies were effective in managing their symptoms. Coping strategy enhancement was developed which aims to teach individuals to develop and apply effective coping strategies. These reduce the frequency, intensity and duration of psychotic symptoms. A weakness of this is that schizophrenic patients have irrational thought processes which makes it difficult to identify the accuracy of their statements regarding the onset of symptoms and it is retrospective therefore it is hard to judge the accuracy of the theory. A weakness of this study is that the main technique used is interviews, so participants may have faced demand characteristics, therefore decreasing the validity of the findings. Another weakness is that the cognitive behavioural therapy does not offer a cure for schizophrenia, therefore is not entirely useful as it doesn’t look at the cause of the disorder......

Words: 820 - Pages: 4

Describe and Evaluate Two Approaches to the Treatment of Self-Defeating Behaviour

...“Describe and evaluate two approaches to the treatment of self-defeating behaviour. 2671 For those who study behaviour it is seen as the process or adapting responses to environmental stimuli, this process becomes conditioned through reinforcement until it becomes ‘learned’. This is stored within the subconscious and revisited or attached to a situation as a means of trying to deal – or not deal – with it. This is the case with self-defeating behaviours where the pattern of behaviour is one that is preventing them from reaching their potential or sense of well-being. A therapist trying to help someone deal with this type of behaviour would be able to explain how it is also learned and through therapy try and investigate where set behaviour stemmed, its causes, and ways of dealing with recurrence as some way to gaining understanding and closure for the client. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy or CBT is one approach to the treatment of self-defeating where a regressive or limiting pattern of behaviour is identified and change of that pattern or cycle is sought through therapy by changing the person’s thinking, which in turn changes actions, and ultimately the regressive or self-defeating patterns of behaviour. For a CBT practitioner or behaviourist the problem is in the behaviour and not in the person arguing that the reinforcing and conditioning effects of a person’s environment hugely influence their behaviour. Behaviour being linked to thoughts means that all......

Words: 2141 - Pages: 9