Describe and Evaluate 2 Biological Treatments for Schizophrenia

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By bp123
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The dopamine hypothesis states that an excess of/ sensitivity to dopamine leads to positive symptoms of schizophrenia. There are two antipsychotics used to decrease the effect of dopamine: Typical antipsychotics (1st generation drugs) and Atypical antipsychotics (2nd generation drugs).1st generation drugs reduce the effect of dopamine and therefore mainly reduce positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Typical antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, are dopamine antagonists and work by binding to dopamine receptors, in particular D2, in the synapses thus preventing dopamine itself from binding to receptors and therefore blocking their action. As a result positive symptoms of schizophrenia are reduced. 2nd generation drugs are a newer generation of antipsychotics, such as clozapine, and work by attaching to specific D2 dopamine receptors only and serotonin. They only temporarily occupy the D2 dopamine receptors and then rapidly dissociate to allow normal dopamine transmission.

The use of drugs for treating SOS is not a long term cure and if the drugs are stopped the symptoms of schizophrenia may come back. This can lead to the ‘revolving door syndrome’ where a SOS would leave the institution because their condition has improved and as a result they stop taking the drugs. But then their symptoms would return and the SOS would have to be re-admitted to the institution often with worsened symptoms. This can result in the SOS needing to take a higher dose of drugs as if they suddenly stop taking them and then start once again the drugs they were taking before are very unlikely to have the same effect as before. Therefore the SOS would have to have a higher dosage of drugs and would need to be kept on maintenance dose for long periods of time, increasing the risk of a greater amount of side effects.

Kane (1988) looked into the effect of 1st generation and 2nd…...

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