Ernest Hemingway, Men Without Women-from the Undefeated to the Killers

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Submitted By jeje94
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MEN WITHOUT WOMEN by Ernest Hemingway (1928) - The Undefeated - In Another Country - Hills Like White Elephants- The Killers

1-THE UNDEFEATED
This short story reflects the courage, or rather recklesness, of a bullfighter called Manuel Garcia. As the title of the collection infers, none of the characters (which are all men) appear to be in touch with, engaged or married to any female. The setting is in Spain, which is indicated by the use of pesatas as currency and Madrid as a road to success according to the bullfighters. So, we may guess the author took his experience from his professional travels as a journalist. This tale is mostly about the way poor and unskilled men cope in a society ruled by corrida organizers as Don Miguel Retana. “If you stand in with Retana in this town, you're a made man” […] “If you aren't in with him you might just as well go out and shoot yourself” (cue from a waiter of the café before the Puerta del Sol) is a sign of the brutality of a community within which everybody ought to abide by Retana's rules. It is also a way to emphasize upon some sort of injustice set up by few men acting almost as mafia bosses. And Manuel, and his late brother, are victims of the system. The former already started getting rejected on the grounds of his being too old and therefore unpopular (as his aging weakens his abilities on the bull ring). However, not being able to make two ends meet, Manuel is compelled to fight in a nocturnal. He requires the help of a gifted picador (older than he is) named Zurito. The next day's night, both fight the first bull with Fuentes (an apt youngster). Following several successful stunts, Manuel faces shame after having accidentally thrown his sword in the audience. Emboldened by the public's response and the bull's overwhelming resistance, “the undefeated” ultimately vanquishes the beast despite his injuries. This…...

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