Ethical Treatment of Participants

In: Business and Management

Submitted By crobin
Words 3510
Pages 15
BUSI 600-B10

Abstract Ethics can be defined as standards or norms of behavior that often guide the moral choices that human beings make as they relate with one another. On the other hand, there are several definitions about the human subject. The review will demonstrate that there are several different ethical and unethical issues that are involved in research. Participants must have some type of trust in the researchers, and have expectations of being treated with the upmost respect. This study shows the structure that participants expect as well as some of the areas that could be perceived as unethical treatment and why it should not happen.

Ethical Treatment of Participants

Introduction
In research, one of the main goals is to ensure that activities undertaken does not harm or cause advance consequences that can lead to suffering. Even though most researchers achieve this goal, there are cases whereby unethical activities are invasive and leads to non-disclosure. This is particularly common with respect to the violation of respondent confidentiality, misrepresentation of results, invoicing irregularities, deceiving people, and avoiding legal liabilities among others (Smith, 2003). Therefore ethical questions are frequently philosophical in nature and hence most researchers do not have a general agreement while trying to answer such questions. Nonetheless, the norms of the society dictate the obligation of individuals in the research process (Smith, 2003). These norms dictate how individuals are supposed to conduct themselves under various circumstances. However, societal norms may sometimes change in the light of changes that are commonly taking place such as technological advancements, governance structures, and economic situations among others. Thus, review boards are usually there to assist researchers to examine their ethical dilemmas throughout…...

Similar Documents

Ethical Issue Analysis for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

...Ethical Treatment of Animals Amber Marie Keldie Soc120 Dr. Monica Jones. September 30th 2012 Ethical Issue Analysis for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Summary: Of all the agricultural land in the US, 87% is used to raise animals for food. These animals are fed more than 80 percent of the corn and 95 percent of the oats the US produces. Meat animals of the world alone consume food equal to caloric needs of 9 billion people- more than the entire human population on earth. It takes 2,500 gallons of water to produce a pound of meat, but only 25 gallons to produce a pound of wheat. A vegetarian food will make ten times as many humans happier than a non-vegetarian one, not counting the happiness gained by animals. Meat eating results in a lot of wastage of food that would otherwise have fed many more people. Ethical Issues Analysis I believe in the ethical treatment for all animals are an ethical obligation by all humans. We have come to an era that we believe that all humans should be treated equally and fairly. Well, what about our other living, breathing counterparts? They deserve to live their life as they choose in quality and in the pursuit of happiness. Just as Europeans came and took over Northern America's land and resources on the Indians. We have also taken over the land and resources from all of the animals. The moral point of view in the killing of animals for food as an indulgence which is not a necessity for our diet is killing another living being...

Words: 864 - Pages: 4

The Ethical Treatment of Animals

...(cats and dogs) we can sympathize with them in ways that we cannot sympathize with the exploited (cows, pigs, chickens and turkeys). However, it does not follow from this that we cannot sympathize at all with the exploited. As stated above, Hume claims that we do sympathize to a greater degree with those close to us than we do with those that are further removed, but the fact remains that we can and do sympathize with those that are further removed from us. Given this, and the fact that the only relevant differences between our relationship with dogs and cats and our relationship with cows, chickens, pigs and turkeys are those of degree of contiguity, resemblance and causality, we still sympathize with the exploited and deem poor treatment of them to be immoral. That is, in these ways, there is only a quantitative and not a qualitative difference between unexploited and exploited animals....

Words: 277 - Pages: 2

Is It Ethical for Doctors to Refuse Futile Treatment?

...be able to refuse demands for "futile" treatment? "Futile" treatment is when there is no medical benefit from the treatment they are receiving, and that there will be no improvement if they are in a permanent vegetative state. Although the concept of medical futility dates back in the Ancient Greek days with physician Hippocrates, it has only recently (in the past 40 years) become a controversial topic. The issue of medical futility is important because it deals with many issues such as patient-physician relationship, financial resources, and most importantly it deals with lives of people. The issues are controversial because it has alarmed many people that physicians may be taking it a step too far being able to pull the plug on a person with an incapacitating condition. The debate is over who has the right to make this decision - the patient's family or physician. There are two sides to this debate; the "Yes" side says that the physician is more qualified and is following what the patient's want to receive while the "No" side says that it should not be up to the physician to decide if the life is worth keeping or not. Steven Miles supports the idea that doctors should be able to refuse futile medical treatment. He maintains that physicians should be able to refuse futile medical treatment because it takes up too many resources, violates community standards, and it follows patient's wishes when what they expect is not what the treatment can achieve. The example used in the......

Words: 968 - Pages: 4

Ethical Treatment of Prisoners

...and are often regarded as "unworthy" in the general community. This paper will identify the ethical issues and problems prisoners face in the areas of harsher punishment and abuse, and how utilitarianism and relativism plays a vital role in resolving some of the ethical issues in prisons. Imprisonment as punishment for crimes was first used during the sixteenth century in Europe. Prior to that, criminal correction usually consisted of enslavement or swift physical punishment such as whipping or execution. According to Michael Hardy (1998) prison was conceived as a more humane response to criminal behavior. Europeans established colonies in America in the seventeenth century and they continued the practice of imprisoning those convicted of crimes (Hardy, 1998). During the colonial era, the number of Americans in prison made up a small, barely noticeable segment of the population. Today, this has changed dramatically. According to statistics from the Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice, if incarceration rates continue unchanged, 1 out of every 20 Americans alive today will be imprisoned at some time in their lives. This is due in part to new crime laws such as “three strikes and you’re out” and tougher sentencing for drug-related offenses (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2009). The question that needs to be addresses is, has the government ensured a universal, consistent, ethical protection for prisoners and are they provided with what’s needed to assure a fair......

Words: 2139 - Pages: 9

Ethical Treatment of Animals

...Ethical Treatment of Animals Duane Aponte SOC120: Introduction to Ethics & Social Responsibility (GSG1207J) Dr. James Prentice 03/19/12 Throughout my life I have always been an animal lover. My main concerns have questioned the behavior of humans towards animals and why researchers choose to experiment on many different animals. I am extremely disgusted by these experiments and for their explanation as for the purpose of scientific research. I understand the objective and what may be the greater good for such experiments. But I do not understand why so many experiments are needed with very little justifications. In my paper I will discuss why experiments should not be taken lightly and will try to draw a conclusion on how we can as a society limit such cruelty towards animals during these experiments. I will also use different ethical theories to explain my point of view. My theories will include an Ethical Moral approach, Utilitarianism point of view, and Deontology point of views. Introduction The use of animals in research and education has involved ethical concern for many years, most particularly in toxicology and bio-medical studies. More recently, ethical concerns have been raised over less disturbing studies such as animal behavior research (Mench, 2000). My concern is before conducting behavioral research, the researcher should first evaluate whether the purpose of the experiment justifies the use of animals. If the purpose is found to be......

Words: 6302 - Pages: 26

Ethical Treatment of Prisoners

...Prisoner Treatment Ethical Treatment of Prisoners Kathy Dauber SOC 120 Introduction to Ethics & Social Responsibility Instructor: Milagros Baez November 25, 2013 The following paper is about the ethical treatment of prisoners. It will discuss the ethical and moral issues that surround those that are incarcerated and what happens behind the scenes, when they need medical attention and other aspect that happen while in jail. Even those that are incarcerated need to have the proper care from a physician or medical staff, so that their needs can be met even if they have done something wrong. Ethical Treatment of Prisoners Medical Facilities When it comes to prison medical facilities, there usually are not enough in prisons to accommodate the inmates. It has been estimated that 95% of inmates received by the federal prison systems need immediate medical care for preexisting conditions (Alexander, 1972). Those that are larger prisons have their own hospital facilities while smaller prisons and jails use community hospitals. Jails have a more critical problem. The American Medical Association did a survey that showed 65.5% had only first-aid facilities and 78% had no formal arrangements with physicians in the community for the medical care of those in the jails. This same study also found that 80% of the medicines given in jails were given by non-medical personal (AMA, 1972). It is viewed that the inmates are not required or should receive medical......

Words: 709 - Pages: 3

Ethical Treatment of Prisoners

...Ethical Treatment of Prisoners By: Melisa Johnson Soc120: Introduction to Ethics and Social Responsibility Instructor: Nikolas Larrow Roberts October 8, 2012 Ethical treatment of prisoners sometimes seems to have a grey area, among society and sometimes among those sworn to take care of them, the correctional officer. “There has never been a question about the stress associated with caring for individuals who have tremendous animosity towards you.” (The ethics of caring for those who hate you, 2006) A correctional officer is held to a higher standard than the average public. Correctional officers at all times are expected to be respectful, and impartial to all prisoners. Regardless of personal beliefs about a prisoners charges or an individual prisoner, correctional officers must be an outstanding role models for others they are around. Dealing with prisoners correctional officers cannot become too friendly; they must maintain fair and impartial judgment. Correctional officers still must remember they are prisoners. There is thin line between be friendly towards prisoners and making prisoners incarceration a living hell. National Prison Association founded in 1870, is the oldest association developed for those who work in the corrections profession. The association had its first meeting in Cincinnati Ohio. The then governor of Ohio, Rutherford B. Hayes (later became president of The United States), was elected as president of the association. The association......

Words: 2378 - Pages: 10

Ethical Treatment

...Ethical Treatment of Prisoners Scott Bain SOC120: Introduction to Ethics and Social Responsibility Instructor: Steven Smith 7/29/2013 Ethical Treatment of Prisoners The word prisoner, or as the correctional institutions refer to their population, inmates, is defined as a person who is deprived of liberty and kept under involuntary restraint, confinement, or custody (na, 2013, Merriam Webster Dictionary). If convicted by a jury of your peers of a crime in the United States you automatically forfeit certain privileges guaranteed to all citizens. The constitution however does assure that prisoners have basic rights and protections which must be observed. We are all members of the human race and the ethical treatment of everyone, incrassated or free, must continue in order to maintain balance and order in a free democratic society. Incrassation as punishment for committing a crime was rarely used up until the 18 century; instead sentences were normally decided on the spot, usually the accused was either sent to the gallows or set free from lack of evidence. Capital punishment was used regularly and was thought to be a justifiable deterrent to violent crimes in the early years of the United States. Although prisons were some of the first structures built by the early Americans, they were not built as a place intended for punishment of the general population, instead they were reserved for high ranking political figures convicted of crimes, or for individuals......

Words: 2088 - Pages: 9

Ethical Treatment of Animals

...proteins, drugs, vaccines, research models and tissues for the treatment and prevention of human disease. Genetic modification can produce animals that are susceptible to certain compounds or stresses for testing in biomedical research (Edge, A.S. 1998). Some genetically modified animals are used as models of human diseases and potential treatments and cures can first be tested on them. Other animals have been engineered with the purpose of potentially increasing their use in medicine and industry. Genetic engineering is a useful technology because it enables animals to produce useful proteins used in research. Conventional animals breeding is constrained to selection based on naturally-occurring variations in the proteins that are present in a species, and this limits the range and extent of genetic improvements that can be achieved (Wagner, J. 2001). When genetically modified animals are produced, they are produced for two distinct reasons: human medicine and agriculture. Most commercial transgenic animal research is in the field of human medicine. Many therapeutic proteins for the treatment of human diseases require animal-cell specific modifications to be effective, and at the present time they are almost all produced in mammalian cell-based bioreactors (Edge, A.S. 1998). Transgenic animals are also being used to produce serum biopharmaceutical products such as antibodies that can be used for the treatment of infections, cancer, organ transplant......

Words: 784 - Pages: 4

Is There Ethical Treatment for Animals in Captivity?

...Is there ethical treatment for animals in captivity? The term “ethical” implies the moral basis of treatment towards animals while “captivity” denotes confinement or lack of freedom. The unmistakable contrast in these two words itself creates the argument whether ethical treatment is possible for animals in captivity. Humans had often been overly considerate about moral principles while dealing with its own kind. Whenever ethics were encroached upon, man stood up against it, questioned it and regained it. But unfortunately, lacking advanced communication like humans, animals are unable to. Human intervention in wildlife has bereaved animals of total control over their own lives. Man may reason out his intrusion, yet, the animals in captivity, being deprived of their natural habitats and having bred in man-made enclosures for generations, tend to misperceive their animality. It is indispensable to have an insight into what causes the bereavement of animals and how it is caused, before looking into its moral principles. Among the contrastive places that I came across in which animal captivity is proceeded, wildlife preservation zoos are the most popular, and least considered as a confinement of animal freedom. Thousands of people visit zoos daily but rarely give a thought to the miserable lives that animals have to spend stagnating and sleeping, due to the less spacious and artificial residences provided. Some present enclosures in zoos have been changed to natural......

Words: 2181 - Pages: 9

Ethical Treatment of Participants

...Ethical Treatment of Participants Business 600 March 11, 2016 Abstract This paper examines the ethical treatment of participants in business research which includes the researcher, the decision maker, and the participant. Each has an obligation to the research study and by exhibiting ethical behavior, the data results will determine accurate information that the decision maker can use for their company. If there is a presence of unethical behavior like lying, deception, coercion, not fully being educated or aware of the study details, it can result in the damaging consequences for not only the participants, but it can also affect the shareholders of the company, the customers buying the product, and even the employees of the store that sells the product. This paper will go into detail of the many obligations each participant has to themselves as well as others. We cannot allow some people to be left at the back of the human rights bus… We must ensure the rights of individual groups or people –be they indigenous peoples, or peoples of Asian or African or American descent, or Jews or Muslims– are not sacrificed on an altar of progress for some while there are setbacks to others. -Matthew Coon Come, National Chief of The Assembly Of First Nations (Catalyst Centre, 2013).   Research can open doors and allow for interests to be pursued, solve a problem that a company has, or it can help enhance a plan that is already in place. Applied research specifically......

Words: 4215 - Pages: 17

Ethical Treatment of Shareholders and Workers in a Traditional, Capitalist Corporation; the Ford Motor Company and Compare and Contrast the Findings with the Treatment of These Stakeholders in the Mondragon Cooperative Corporation.

...This essay will aim to investigate the ethical treatment of shareholders and workers in a traditional, capitalist corporation; The Ford Motor Company and compare and contrast the findings with the treatment of these stakeholders in the Mondragon Cooperative Corporation. The structure of this essay will be as follows; firstly the fundamental differences between the two contrasting organisations will be examined and how these differences impact the ethical treatment of the relevant stakeholders; secondly, the ethical treatment of shareholders in regards to corporate governance and the executive’s accountability and control will be investigated, and lastly, the ethical treatment of workers within the two contrasting organisations will be scrutinized in relation to the employees right to participation and association, as well as the right to fair wages. To frame the purpose of this essay; to investigate the ethical treatment of shareholders and workers in a traditional, capitalist corporation compared to the treatment of these stakeholders in the Mondragon Cooperative Corporation, it is imperative to firstly examine the contrasting ideologies and points of difference between the two ways of organising. In understanding the fundamental differences between the two contrasting organisations, it is then possible to recognise the ethical dilemmas that arise for both shareholders and workers. The fundamental differences between a traditional capitalist corporation and the Mondragon......

Words: 2184 - Pages: 9

Ethical Treatment of Animals

...Taylor Darling-Miles May 30, 2012 Writing 122 Kristy Bryant-Berg Negative Effects of GMO’s The age of technology is upon us. In fact, the United States is so deeply entrenched in technology that our lives will be influenced and changed forever because of the technology revolution. Technological advancements come at us so quickly in the United States that we barely have time to absorb and understand the changes before the next changes are upon us. One of the most recent technological advancements is the development of GMO’s, or Genetically Modified Organisms. GMO’s are being used to develop our crops and everyday food, causing many consumers to worry about the effects of GMO’s on our health, environment, and our ecosystem. Questions are being raised as to whether GMO technologies have more negative or positive effects both now and in the future. The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’S) in our crops is more detrimental than it is beneficial because GMO’s have possible negative environmental and health impacts and the consequences of using GMO’s is unknown and unpredicted. The benefits of using Genetically Modified Organism’s in our crops do not compare with the possible detrimental impacts on our environment and ecosystem, health, and the future of our planet. The use of GMO’s in food production is creating major environmental concerns both to the FDA and consumers. Unknown and unstudied chemicals that are being put into our environment with the GMO’s leave us......

Words: 1565 - Pages: 7

Ethical Treatment of Animals

...Ethical Treatment of Animals I. Introduction Animals have played an important role in many aspects of this world; some look upon these roles with favoritism, some with disgust. Animals give live birth and are considered different from humans by some people because of their behavior. Some animals are consumed as food by humans and other animals or trapped for their furs. Many times people get animals as pets and neglect them. Some animals are pulled out of their habitat and are used as research yet; some humans think they don't deserve any rights because they are animals. A. Thesis Statement Throughout this paper I will examples of possibilities that can be used to change the life of an animal in the food industry, as a pet and as research, we need to help them have a better life even if we are going to use them as food and pets. II. Body paragraph #1 - Topic Sentence #1 On today's factory farms, animals are crammed by the thousands into filthy, windowless sheds and confined to wire cages, gestation crates, barren dirt lots, and other cruel confinement systems. A. Supporting Evidence PETA made a investigation at Agriprocessors in 2004 revealed almost 300 instances of inhumane slaughter, in which cows' sensitive faces were shocked with electric prods, fully conscious cattle had their tracheas and esophagi ripped from their throats with meat hooks or knives, and they writhed in pools of their own blood, trying desperately to stand up for up to three minutes as...

Words: 1030 - Pages: 5

The Ethical Treatment of Animals in America

...The Ethical Treatment of Animals in America Arline Edmiston SOC 120: Introduction to Ethics & Social Responsibility Professor Susanne Elliott September 11, 2012 As with the majority of subjects that involve ethics, there is always more than just one point of view. It is not any different when it comes to the ethical treatment of animals. In fact, it has been the subject in which a few near war like situations have happened. For example, there are people who believe that any time an animal is killed even if that animal did not suffer they still see it as being wrong. Although, on the other hand there are people who relish in the ability to be able to eat meat and kill animals. However, the bottom line is that most people are somewhere in the middle over how they feel about what happens to the animals of the animal world that we share our world with. I will be going over some of these ideas and also be talking about some the groups associated with these ideas. The issue of animal rights is a very complex and touchy subject. There are both positive and negative sides to the animal rights issue. Both sides of which seem to have major contradictions to both themselves and to each other. Animal rights people have proposed that in the basic interest of the animals such things as avoidance of suffering should be given the same attention that it would be given to any human being. One such animal rights organization that believes this is PETA or People for the......

Words: 2951 - Pages: 12