Funny Boy Postmodernism Essay

In: English and Literature

Submitted By RAGUMUFFIN
Words 1332
Pages 6
Postmodernism is the belief that change occurs according to different situations, time, and place of the realities we live in. Postmodernism is a analytical theory that is used to compare and evaluate articles, novels, and other literary sources. For instance, the classification of gay vs. straight with Arjie and his family is a direct example of postmodernism in the novel, Funny Boy. In similarity, Sinhalese vs. Tamil is another comparison that represents the anger of Ammachi towards Anil. Funny Boy follows a protagonist, Arjie, who has yet to find his true identity but continues to build different relationships with different characters. The story elaborates on the civil war between the Tamil and the Sinhalese which has a deep connection with the different relationships created throughout the story. These relationships; gay and straight, Tamil and Sinhalese, old and youth are what could be analyzed with the literary device, postmodernism. In the novel, Arjie begins narrating the story as a young Tamil boy who finds himself different from his entire family and his friends. He finds himself connected to a different side of sexuality as he plays a childish game called “bride-bride”. For many years he constantly volunteered to play the role of the female character even though male roles were still available. While he does this, he explores life through a female perspective and is soon titled as “funny” referring to gay. His parents are extremely aggravated and try to avoid their family reputation from being disgraced. In order to save it, they forcefully make Arjie play cricket with his older brother, so he can rediscover his true identity. This also fails because Arjie is considered too “girly” by the other males which makes him even more happy as he is satisfied with his real feelings. Things become much easier for him when he meets a friend in his new school who…...

Similar Documents

Postmodernism

...Discourses of Postmodernism: Art and Architecture Figure 1. Marilyn Monroe This essay will look into the meaning of postmodernism, and the way the postmodern has changed the way art work has been perceived, and how it has affected specifically photography and architecture. It will be looking into the main theorist of postmodernism such as Jean Boudrillard and Marshall McLuhan to understand the history of where postmodernism originated from and how it has changed the way art and culture has been looked upon, I will be mentioning the works of William Eggleston, Andy Warhol and Cindy Sherman to clearly define some of the postmodern artists who are still very well-known today as much as they were known back in the 60s and 70s onwards. I will be explaining how postmodernism has changed and what is happening in today's society. What is the meaning of Postmodernism? Postmodernism is an exasperating term, and so are postmodern, postmodernist, postmodernity, and whatever else one might come across in the way of derivation. In the avalanche of articles and books that have made use of the term since the late 1950s, postmodernism has been applied at different levels of conceptual abstraction to a range of objects and phenomena in what we did call reality (Bertens,1995 p3). Postmodernism is also related to Modernism which refers to a certain period in Western culture, which covered the later Nineteenth and early Twentieth centuries. However, others dated the movement in the 1960s after...

Words: 2074 - Pages: 9

About a Boy Essay

...About a boy essay Will is living a good life in London. He does not need to have a job because of royalties from a song his father had made. He is using all his spare time to watch television and hunt women. Will is meeting a girl called Angie who is a single mom but the relationship is only shortly and it ends surprisingly for Will because she is the one who’s breaking up. After that Will finds out that single moms is a lot better to hook up with and he is joining a single parents club where he lies about having a son and a former wife who had left him and his son alone. His plan about meeting women at the single club succeeds and he meets Suzie. Will and Suzie plans a picnic together but unfortunately for Will are Suzie taking her friends/Fiona’s 12 year old son Marcus with her. After the picnic Will and Suzie is driving Marcus home they find Marcus’s mom Fiona lying overdosed on pills in her living room because of a suicide attempt. Marcus wants to make her mother to be happy again after the suicide attempt so he tries to arrange a date between Will and his mother Fiona. But already after the first date his plans fail. Marcus doesn’t like to be home alone with his mother because she doesn’t understand his problem especially not the one in school. So he follows will and finds out that he does not have a child and that he has been lying to Suzie, Fiona and Marcus, so Marcus blackmails Will to let him hangout at his place after school almost every day so he doesn’t......

Words: 942 - Pages: 4

Black Boy Essay

...Kristina Teodoro March 7, 2013 Diverse Voices Essay Hunger In the world we live in today, many people growing up in modern America are sheltered behind the wealth that hides the uncomfortable expectancies and dulls the long term effects of hardship. The conclusion of “hunger” is evident even in our pampered lives; however, it holds a much more significant meaning in the lives touched by the grim fingers of poverty, defeat, and in these next few cases, racial discrimination. Whether it is hunger for food, knowledge, acceptance, or for love, hunger is everywhere, and harshly attacks everyone, young or old, black or white. In Black Boy, Do the Right Thing, and Color of Fear, we encounter people that suffer from hunger for love, knowledge, acceptance, and for what they believe is the right thing through the different circumstances they face. In the autobiography Black Boy by Richard Wright, Richard faces not only physical hunger, but also the hunger for love, acceptance, equality, and knowledge. He yearns for attention from people. Since Richard received little at home, he did not learn how to associate with others. In the end, this provoked a problem when he leaves home because he was unable to understand the friendliness of the new people he came across. “Nevertheless, I was so starved for association with people that I allowed myself to be seduced by it all, and for a few months I lived the life of an optimist.” (178) Since Richard’s home was a hostile environment, we often......

Words: 1204 - Pages: 5

Analytical Essay Boy in the Striped Pyjamas

...Analytical Essay Boy in the Striped Pyjamas January 13th, 2010 Nathan Harder Shaving Bruno’s hair is a focal point in the novel and a main contribution to his death at the end of the book. It also illustrates how we are, ultimately, all humans. Through Bruno, we improve our understanding of just how equivalent and identical we truly are. When Bruno is infected with lice from nearby Auschwitz, his father shaves his son’s head, much like the prisoners must undergo upon entrance. “It turned out that both Gretel and Bruno had lice in their hair,…..then Father decided that the best thing was for him to start afresh and he got a razor and shaved all Bruno’s hair off, which made Bruno cry.” (p.183) “…there were crowds of people sitting together in groups….they all had one thing in common….they all had shaved heads, which Bruno thought must have meant there had been an outbreak of lice here too.” (p.206) Not only does this make Bruno resemble the prisoners, but it condemns him to his ultimate demise when, upon entering the camp, he is mistaken for a prisoner. He would have been easily recognized by his full head of hair and would have been returned to his father. Perhaps, had his father been more attentive towards his son, Bruno may have escaped his horrible fate. Bruno’s shaven head contributed in making him look like all the other children in the camp. ......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

The Boy in the Striped Pyjmas Essay

...The Boy In The Striped Pyjamas is a novel from the point of view of a 9 year old boy called Bruno growing up in world war 2. He lived in Berlin with his parents and sister, Gretel. After his father visits Adolf Hitler he gets promoted to Commandant and his family has to move to a place called Out-With. Bruno feels homesick and wants to move back to his old home so he see his friends again. Bruno is lonely and has no one to play with, but one day he looked at his window to strangely see a group of people wearing striped pyjamas, as a curious boy Bruno asks his sister who they are, she didn’t know so he asked his father, he told him that they are not people at all and are Jews. Bruno is not allowed to leave the house but one day he decides to go down to the people in the striped pyjamas and finds another boy called Shmuel around the same age as him. After some time Bruno and Shmuel become best friends. Shmuel asked Bruno if he could help him find his father, Bruno says ok and goes into the concentration camp to help find him, but they get mixed into a group of Jews about to get taken to the gas chambers, the boys don’t know where they are going and go along with it, they get lead into a gas chamber thinking they are gonna have a shower but get gassed and killed. The Boy In The Striped Pyjamas is set during world war 2 in Berlin and soon after in a place called Out-With which is where the Auschwitz concentration camp was. The Boy In The Striped Pyjamas follows the......

Words: 386 - Pages: 2

Funny Boy

...Shyam Selvadurairs Funny Boy Analysis English Literature Essay Identity involves recognition of the self. It is not static, but it constantly changes in relation to political, cultural and social events that are occurring. A child's identity is negotiable. Children are presumed innocent and naïve until they have experienced life. Their sense of identity has not been determined if they have not had experiences in which they are able to determine their relationship to and how it affects them. In narrating or privileging a child's perspective in a novel, the language the reader is presented with is simplistic and the viewpoint of the narrator is often minimalistic as it is based upon the experiences which the narrator has encountered. Shyam Selvadurair's Funny Boy is narrated from an adolescent’s perspective, where the presumed innocence and naivety of the child offers an alternative view to the political, cultural, social and historical tensions in India and Sri Lanka and the effect that it has on the developing child in terms of identity. The child narrator in each text is an outsider as they do not merge with the cultural norms imposed upon by society. Arjie, the product of an upper-class Tamil family in Funny Boy, crosses borders in his awakening as a homosexual, falling in love with a Sinhalese, despite his parents attempt to create a masculine identity for him, in order that he may abide by the boundaries and social order that has been imposed upon him. The need to......

Words: 1511 - Pages: 7

Essay on Richard Gibney’s “the Whipping Boy”

...An Essay on Richard Gibney’s “The Whipping Boy” Slavery has always been a debated subject among Americans, and numerous artists, authors, directors etc. have through American history given their take on ‘slavery’ before and after the abolishment. However in recent years the subject of slavery has appeared in several books and films (12 Years a Slave, Django etc.), where most of them describe the brutality, in which, Afro Americans lived. “The Whipping Boy”, does as the others describe the historic brutality, but it also takes a different view that gives a curious reason for the oncoming racism, in the period. “The Whipping Boy” as many other stories, told during and after the American civil war, takes place in the Confederate States most likely in the South East, where plantations were abundant. The civil war has just ended as a messenger boy from the Union has told the former slaves of their freedom, alas the year is 1865. Our third person narrator, Martha, does not really believe the messenger, as she believes him “too young and underqualified to confer freedom upon anyone…”, though the two brothers Mikey and Tommy believe in the Union boy’s story, whereas their first act as free men is to kill the dogs of their former slaver/master Sterling Gage. This, at first, seems quite brutal, but we quickly learn that “… the slaves treated the dogs better in death than the dogs had treated the slaves in life.” Which leaves the mind open to imagine......

Words: 1012 - Pages: 5

Every Good Boy - Essay

...Every Good Boy Many people struggle with finding your identity and finding that one thing that you supposedly have a talent for. That is one of the themes David Nicholls presents in the short story Every Good Boy, which is about a young man who gets pressured by his family to find his talent. One day his father comes home and he has brought a big piano with him. His intentions with the piano, is that the boy is going to play it. The father keeps telling him, that everybody has a talent, and with a sister who is a gifted and influential majorette and an older brother, who can dismantle things, there gets developed expectations for him. So he starts taking piano-lessons with Mrs Chin, who lives across the streets. He practice very Thursday for an hour, but there still isn’t any improvement, and Mrs Chin is about to give up, and gets more and more frustrated with him. She keeps telling him that he will be the death of her and that her head is about to burst. One day while playing “The entertainer” by Scott Joplin, Mrs Chin dies and the boy begins to clean up, so it doesn’t seem as he was there when she died. He can’t endure the thought that everybody is going to know that he killed her with his terrible piano playing. It appears clearly that the author presents the theme by showing how the narrator struggles with finding his identity, and with all the pressure around him, it makes it even harder. It’s a typical situation for human beings, to be at a place in life......

Words: 950 - Pages: 4

Essay on ”About a Boy”

...two – maybe more people. This can causes further conflict, as you may not agree on how to deal with conflicts and how to progress the development. In the movie and the book "About a boy" a lot of ​different developments are looked into, and brought up in all sorts of ways. This happens most often through the two main characters' life and everyday. The movie and the book use multiple viewpoints. The story is told by only one character at a time, but the viewpoint switches between the two main characters throughout the course of the movie and the book. In every chapter of the book it changes from Marcus viewpoint to Will’s, and in the movie it changes when we as viewer follows Marcus’s actions to Will’s. We know what Marcus and Will thinks, which gives us a perspective from several different angles and in this case keeps the story fresh and exciting. The author has done an incredibly good job, as he has managed not to lose the viewer/reader through the multiple viewpoints, and that is because the transitions are well done. The narrator is a 3rd person narrator and it is character-bounded to Marcus and Will. In the movie and the book, there are two main characters – Marcus and Will, who both are round characters because they develop much though the story. Marcus is a special 12-year old boy and seems very grown-up for his age. In the beginning of the story he is very influenced by his mother, Fiona, but as the story goes on he finds out that he is capable of making his...

Words: 1028 - Pages: 5

The Stone Boy - English Essay Assignment

...The Stone Boy Tragedy is something that any human has to face in life. During these moments of intense emotion, humans come together in unity, to cope with whatever distress they face. But what happens if one human is left out of the flock, to attend himself when tragedy hits? The text revolves around this theme of neglect, and how a person can become afraid and want to alienate oneself from the ones who should be close to them, if they aren’t cared for when tragedy occurs. The setting of the story “The Stone Boy” by Gina Berriault is on a farm in the countryside, the place is isolated, which fits into the theme as a symbol for alienation. Arnold lives here with his parents, older brother Eugene and older sister Nora. One day Arnold accidentally shoots and kills Eugene when his rifle gets jammed in a fence wire. Instead of going back to his family straight away, he goes picking peas for an hour. After he has told his parents what happened, he isolates himself in a barn before he’s taken to the police by his dad and uncle. Because he doesn’t run straight back home after the accident, the Sheriff speculates him being a sociopath, which his uncle takes note of. He is overlooked by his family, and rejected when he tries to talk with his mother one the night. It all ends with him leaving the house to retrieve a newborn calf. The narrator being 3rd person and bound to Arnolds’ point of view is significant in the regard that it tells us how he feels, and what his thoughts......

Words: 1309 - Pages: 6

Postmodernism Essay

...Society has now entered a new, postmodern age and we need new theories to understand it. Assess this view. (33 marks) Postmodernists argue that we are now living in a new era of postmodernity (an unstable, fragmented, media-saturated global village, where image and reality are indistinguishable.) In postmodern society, we define ourselves by what we consume. This is a fundamental break with modernity. They therefore take a relativist position. They argue that all views are true for those who hold them. No one has special access to the truth - including sociologists. All accounts of reality are equally valid and we should celebrate the diversity of views. Lyotard suggests that we have entered a new postmodern age and that new theories are required in our society. In postmodern society, knowledge is just a series of different ‘language games’ or ways of seeing the world. However postmodern society is preferable to modern society where meta-narratives claimed a monopoly of truth and sometimes sought to impose it by force, as in the Soviet Union. Postmodernity allows marginalised groups to be heard. Lyotard argues that old theories can no longer explain this society due to the fact that our postmodern society is characterised by these competing views of truth. Yet, Lyotard’s theory is self-defeating. He suggests that all theories are without truth, portraying that his theory is another that should not be believed. Baudrillard, in agreement with Lyotard, believes that......

Words: 686 - Pages: 3

The Wipping Boy - Essay

...The Whipping Boy By Richard Gibney In the late 1800 a violent and comprehensive civil war began in the United States of America after Abraham Lincoln supported banning slavery. The war was a conflict between the Union in the North and the Confederacy in the South, Non-slavery against slavery. One of the most significant events in the history of the United States. The North was fighting to end slavery and protect the Union. Richard Gibney addresses the controversial subject slavery in his short story ”The Whipping Boy” that takes place in the end of the American Civil War where slavery was abolished. ”The Whipping Boy” starts in medias res in a slave plantation in the southern part of America around the late 1800 (1864-1865). The reader is introduced to three slaves: Martha, Mikey and Tommy. They work and live at a plantation owned by their masters: Old Mrs. Gage, who is very sick and cries bitter tears over her husband’s death and the young First Lieutenant in the Confederate army, Sterling Gage, who has been in battle at the front for a year. The plot takes off when the three slaves are informed that slavery has been abolished: ”It was the day after the boy from the Union had come to the farm to let the slaves know they were freemen”. The action rises as the slaves are declared freemen and decide to travel to the north and get jobs. ”Then they could all go North, Mikey, his new wife and his brother, all working for wages in the city.” They had stopped working in the...

Words: 1280 - Pages: 6

Essay Assignment: the Truth About Boys and Girls in School

...Ms C r on H 3U w#s@ $a^let(on SS 2015-03-22 Essay Assignment: The Truth About Boys and Girls in School 2 Despite an equal education system, young males are trailing behind the separable and successful girls that are dominating the classroom. Boys lack of ability in school is causing them to struggle miserably, fail classes, influence negative behavioural decisions and even drop out. These setbacks are leading boys to disappointing futures that include them missing out on critical opportunities such as post secondary education and employment. This ongoing issue is turning heads and filling parents and educators with concerns. Well, why is that boys are not as good as girls? And is there anything that can be done? Boys are no less intelligent then girls in any way, just disadvantaged. The way they learn compared to girls and how are school system is structured leaves boys coughing up girls dust. There is an issue at hand and it must be addressed: Boys are second class citizens in today’s education system and it is not their fault! At the end of the day, its safe to say that generally speaking, girls are much better learners then boys in the classroom. The differences between what boys need and what girls need are often vast, by no means is any way wrong; however, the classroom only caters to one. Its not something we can be upset with or confused by, its just nature that boys and girls are different and one is benefiting from it. Kids generally look......

Words: 2126 - Pages: 9

The Stone Boy - Essay

...------------------------------------------------- The Stone Boy essay by Hans Augustenborg ‘’He don’t give a hoot, is that how it goes?’’ – this is one of the many claims that are pointed against Arnold’s unexpected behaviour after he accidental fires a shoot, which leads into the death of his brother Eugie. In the text, The Stone Boy by Gina Berriault, we follow a boy who behaves exceptional calm, after he killed his brother. But do you really have the tools to tell, when a person is feeling stung just by observing his way to conduct? Places in the text including the grown-ups reactions on the incident and their way to handle the situation, tells us that no one really discovers the course of pain he is going through. On a little farm in the country, two brothers are going out for picking up peas. One of the boys Arnold decides to carry a rifle with him for the purpose of hunting ducks by the lake. On the way over a wired fence at the way down to the lake, a shot was unfortunately fired from Arnold’s rifle. The bullet had hit the other brother, Eugie. The protagonist Arnold is the latest born child in the family. He got an uncle named Andy who is more like an enemy rather than a friend for Arnold. ‘’You don’t want him?’’ is Andy’s reply to the sheriff when he tells him and the father to take Arnold back home. It doesn’t seem like uncle Andy together with the distant father really cares about the little boy. Before the accident Arnold behaves just like you could......

Words: 804 - Pages: 4

Boy in the Striped Pyjamas Essay

...What different reactions are shown to the events of the holocaust in the film, ‘the boy in the striped pajamas’? The holocaust is a point in history everyone at the time had different views on. There were the minority groups such as Jews and disabled who were victims, the normal German people who had to just stand back and watch because otherwise they would be prosecuted. But then there were the Nazi perpetrators who did everything they could to bring pain and misery into the lives of those around them. All these people had different reactions and opinions on the holocaust, these opinions were shaped due to the surroundings of each individual and ‘The boy in the striped pyjamas’ has characters from all these backgrounds and more. Each person with their own view on the holocaust that changes as they move different places, encounter different people and learn more about it. The main character is a young German boy called Bruno who is the son of a Nazi solider. He enjoys reading adventure books and exploring, so when Bruno’s father gets a promotion that insists he moves house Bruno sees it as a sad situation leaving his friends but a chance for him to explore. In the beginning Bruno is incredibly naïve of the situation. He knows very little about the holocaust and about what his father’s work entails. In the opening scene Bruno and his friends are pretending to be flying aeroplanes this shows he has some awareness that war is going on, but as he is playing it as a game it...

Words: 2912 - Pages: 12