Indus Civilization

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By Sanaullah
Words 1401
Pages 6
INDUS CIVILIZATION

Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization or Harappa civilization, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. It was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in 1922 at Mohenjo-Daro (Mohenjo-Daro), near the Indus River in the Sindh (Sind) region, now both in Pakistan. Subsequently, vestiges of the civilization were found as far apart as Sutkagen Dor, near the shore of the Arabian Sea 300 miles (480 km) west of Karachi, also in Pakistan, and Rupnagar, in India, at the foot of the Shimla Hills 1,000 miles (1,600 km) to the northeast. Later exploration established its existence southward down the west coast of India as far as the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay), 500 miles (800 km) southeast of Karachi, and as far east as the Yamuna (Jumna) River basin, 30 miles (50 km) north of Delhi. It is thus decidedly the most extensive of the world’s three earliest civilizations; the other two are those of Mesopotamia and Egypt, both of which began somewhat before it.
The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) located in the western region of South Asia, and spread over what is now Pakistan, northwest India, and eastern Afghanistan. Flourishing in the Indus River basin, the civilization extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna Doab, it extended west to the Makran coast of Baluchistan and north to northeastern Afghanistan. The civilization was spread over some 1,260,000 km², making it the largest ancient civilization.
The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new…...

Similar Documents

Ancient Indian Civilization

...ANCIENT INDIAN CIVILIZATION INTRODUCTION In the 1920s, a huge discovery in South Asia proved that Egypt and Mesopotamia were not the only "early civilizations." In the vast Indus River plains (located in what is today Pakistan and western India), under layers of land and mounds of dirt, archaeologists discovered the remains of a 4,600 year-old city. A thriving, urban civilization had existed at the same time as Egyptian and Mesopotamian states — in an area twice each of their sizes. The Indian civilization is one of the most ancient civilizations of the world. It is known as the Sindhu civilization or the Indus Valley civilization or the Aryan civilization. Sometimes it is also referred to as the Vedic civilization. The Aryans kindled the light of this civilization on the banks of the river Sindhu (Indus) in the Northern India, thousands of years ago. Later, they helped spread it across some other parts of the country. The historians can not ascertain the precise period when this great civilization flourished. The scholars differ on the period of its development. Even the origin of the Aryan race has been debatable. Some historians believe that the Aryans migrated from the North Central Asia and settled in India. Some other historians contend that the Aryans have been the natives of India. In the opinion of “Lokmanya Tilak” and other Indian scholars, the Aryan civilization is 4000 to 8000 years old. The Indus Valley Civilization which flourished from about 2600 BCE......

Words: 6134 - Pages: 25

Civilization

...* Civilization Essay * Civilization is the product of the inner human consciousness that projects itself collectively within society. These projections are what we interact with everyday within our own society. These projections are based on the natural interpretation of their respective civilization or culture and the basic walks of life that consume it. For example the existence of laws, arts, religion, and government are the meat and potatoes of civilization without these essential elements humans would be reduced animals that eat to live and breed without leaving a mark or legacy of his own. The fact that humans even want to leave legacy is interweaved into building blocks of civilization. As defined by dictionary.com civilization is an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached. (Dictonary.com) Are humans defined by their civilizations acceptance of their cultural ideologies? How do these ideologies play out in society and what role do these ideologies play in civilization? * The answer is the humanities rule our existence. Humanities because it is the outward expression of our selves our ideas and culture. Humanities capture the human spirit, soul, and inner thoughts and express them in three different ways through visual art, performing art, and literary art. These arts impress upon our society to shape our ideas of the world around us, and how we fit into the grand scheme of......

Words: 489 - Pages: 2

History of Civilization

...geography of the Indian subcontinent influence the development of civilization there? The Geography of the Indian subcontinent, for sure, influenced the development of civilization. Agriculture was the main occupation for the most of the Indian population. Geography of the Indian subcontinent includes the climate and weather a country has. If there are a lot of floods and droughts it destroyed the harvest and it could cause a bad crop which decrease the supply and increases the prices of the grain all over the world. There are Himalayan Mountains on the Indian subcontinent territory, they divide India from Asia which prevent from enemies and any kind of immigration. When the snow melts on the Himalayan Mountains it provides a lot of water, which is needed for fertile soil. The northern mountains shield India from cold Artic winds, and make India a sub-tropical climate country. This makes the land mass much warmer than the ocean that surrounds it, prompting the development of the monsoons. Other words Himalayan Mountains protected people from the monsoons and created warm climate. Sailors in the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean very fast figured how to use the monsoon wind to their advantage. Also there are 2 rivers on the Indian subcontinent (Ganges and Indus).The Ganges provides water for the crops and harvest, and not only that, the citizens could use it for transportation purposes as well, and the Indus river nourish the dry plain of southwest of India. In......

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Harrapan Civilization

...Harappan Civilization (also known as Indus Valley Civilization) Submitted By: Sharad Thakran 1919 Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Discovery and history of excavation 3. Chronology 4. Geography 5. Early Harappan 6. Mature Harappan a. Cities b. Authority and governance c. Technology d. Arts and crafts e. Trade and transportation f. Subsistence g. Writing system h. Religion 7. Collapse and Late Harappan 8. Legacy 9. Historical context and linguistic affiliation Introduction The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India (see map). Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of......

Words: 4336 - Pages: 18

Civilization

...1 Civilization What is meant by the term “Civilization” Kenneth Dutton EG 362 Humanities 2 Civilization What is meant by the term “Civilization” and how we characterize it? What role do the humanities play in this definition? The definition of civilization is an advance state of human society that shows high levels of culture, science, industry and the government have been reached. Specifically the state of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained. Humanities by definition is the documentation of human being through stories, paintings, religion and beliefs. The stories around the campfire, family heirlooms that come with a story, the journaling of our experiences and lives all become a form of humanities that is passed on to the next civilization after it. Humanities is shown through art and paintings, but does not stop there. The paintings not only tell a story in picture, but document the evolvement in skill of art with techniques and tools. The documentation of beliefs allowing for the development of religion organized societies, giving order or sense of normalcy in the burial of bodies and or praying to a god. In religion art made its presence through sculptures used in religious content. These definitions of humanities were...

Words: 364 - Pages: 2

Indus Civilization

...overview The Indus Valley civilization was an ancient civilization located in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent. The Indus Valley is contemporary with the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. The civilization is famous for its large and well-planned cities. Over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found. Most of these are small, but amongst them are some of the largest cities of their time, especially Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. Geography The Indus Valley civilization covered most of what is today Pakistan and the Indian states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab. Settlements which were closely related to the core civilization - and may have been colonies of it - have been found in Afghanistan and central Asia. The huge Indus river system waters a rich agricultural landscape. The Indus plain is surrounded by high mountains, desert and ocean, and at that time dense forest to the east. Well-planned Cities The early phase of the civilization lasted from circa 3300 BC until 2800 BC. This saw farming settlements grow into large and sophisticated urban centres. The quality of municipal town planning indicates that these communities were controlled by efficient governments. These clearly placed a high priority on accessibility to water. Modern scholars tend to see in this the influence of a religion which places a string emphasis on ritual washing - much like modern Hinduism. Hygiene was also important to the......

Words: 473 - Pages: 2

Ancient Civilizations

...Ancient Civilizations The first civilizations in history were developed in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Hurrapan and China some 5,000 years ago. All receive the name of river civilizations because they were developed on the banks of major rivers: the Tigris and the Euphrates in Mesopotamia; the Nile in Egypt; the Indus in the Hurrapan civilization; and the Yellow River in China. The banks of these rivers were occupied lands very fertile and easy to water, causing a great development of agriculture. The economic growth produced major changes; the population increased and the small villages grew into large cities with many thousands of inhabitants. A civilization is a complex culture in which a large number of people share several common elements. Historians have identified some basic features of the civilization, most of which is obvious in the civilizations of Mesopotamia, Hurrapan, China and Egypt. These include: (1) Urban revolution; the cities become the principal points of the political, financial, social, cultural and religious development. (2) Religious structure characteristic; the gods are considered crucial to the success of the community, and professional religious classes; as administrators of the property of the gods and they regulate relations with the gods. (3) New political structures and military; arises an organized government bureaucracy to meet the administrative demands of the growing population, while armies are organized to acquire domains and power. (4)......

Words: 446 - Pages: 2

Civilization

...Civilization – A Definition What do ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform writing tablets, Egyptian pyramids of Giza, inscribed oracle bones from ancient Chinese divine rituals, and automobiles have in common? Each of these objects represents a bi-product of an ancient or modern civilization. However, many anthropologists, historians, theorists and sociologists alike disagree with regard to how the term civilization should be defined. According to sociologist Robert Park, “Civilization […] is the result of man’s effort to use the resources of his environment in order to change nature and, where possible, make it less raw, more comfortable and less difficult to endure” (Park, 132). He reasons that civilization should be measured by man’s degree of conquest over nature (133). Historian and author Felipe Fernández-Armesto describes civilization as both a “process of collective self-differentiation from a world characterized […] as barbaric or savage or primitive” and a stage reached when a particular society reaches its “climax” (Fernández-Armesto, 13). While peace activist Scott Nearing believed civilization to be the “most comprehensive, extensive and inclusive life pattern achieved by terrestrial humanity,” the philosopher and revolutionary Karl Marx believed that the beginning of civilization symbolized the beginning of oppression (Nearing, 54). In the simplest sense, the Oxford English Dictionary defines the verb “to civilize” as “to bring out of a state of barbarism, to......

Words: 1508 - Pages: 7

Indus River

...The Indus River Basin: The Continuing Water Disputes Between India and Pakistan Anise Ko August 7, 2014 Professor Beth Bennett Introduction The Indus River was a key factor in the development of the Asian civilization. It originates in the Tibetan plateau and flows through four different countries: Tibet, Afghanistan, India and Pakistan to end in the Arabian Sea. The Indus River catchment area is as follows: sixty percent of the area belongs to Pakistan, about twenty percent belongs to India, five percent belongs to Afghanistan and fifteen per cent belongs to Tibet (Aljazeera, 2011). There are a total of six main tributaries: Sutlej, Ravi and Beas flow through Punjab and the other three rivers of the Indus basin - Indus, Jhelum and Chenab run through the territory of Jammu and Kashmir (Harvard, 2011). Since the partition of the British Indian empire in 1947, Pakistan and India have fought over the province of Punjab and the state of Kashmir, which resulted in a partition of the area between the two countries. The water dispute is also closely related to partition of the Kashmir region, too. The six rivers run through India which controls Jammu and Kashmir, before reaching Pakistan and the part of Jammu and Kashmir governed by Pakistan (Harvard, 2011). The geological allocation described above brought out significant disadvantages to Pakistan in early the1950s as a consequence of the political conflicts between the two countries. The help of the World Bank together with...

Words: 3473 - Pages: 14

Civilization

...Civilization Civilization is a hard word to explain, in one word or in a sentence, because it depends on how the society is built and there are many different aspects. Civilization comes from the word civis, which comes from Latin, and means citizen of a city. When you take a look in the mirror, have you ever thought about that you belong to a certain identical group and that your language or culture even could be some of your personality behaviors are a sign of the particular civilization? What is civilization? And how is Civilization defined? According to the dictionary “Civilization” means a society, its culture and way of living life. The definition of civilization refers to a society or it can be group of people or the process of achieving a higher state of social development. When we look at R.Cobb´s drawing about civilization, we see these two mason where some people are blocked inside them both, those peoples are exactly the same but they have created too parts of different civilization and one of the group consider the other group to be “mentally ill” and reverse. A example could be the Israeli-Palestinian conflict that has been going on for 65 years. The new born state took its place back in May 1948. They got mandates for Britain, to occupate the county of the Palestinians. They performed ethnic cleansing, which resulted in millions of refugees of Palestinians in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon. Then they came up with the apartheid politics, which resulted in a wall...

Words: 320 - Pages: 2

Definition of Civilization

... Definition of Civilization When people in the community live peacefully, the level of development increases tremendously thereby civilization sets in. Before civilization came into existence, the early people lived off the land and were nomadic hunter-gatherers. With time, these hunters and groups of foragers started to settle down. There were strains on the nomadic people in that they had to find reliable sources of food for the animals that were large to feed. The exact meaning of “civilization” sometimes becomes hard to define since it can be ambiguous. It is easier for civilization to be described than it can be defined. According to Mazlish (5), civilization can be defined in many ways, but many scholars agree that when a society forms cities the result is that it becomes a civilization. Scholars define civilization as a set of attributes that certain societies possess, for example, agriculture, writing, monumental construction, government, mathematics among others. Emphasis is employed in the definition of civilization in terms of describing societies as being urbanized and hierarchical. Civilization is traced back to the Latin word “civilis” that has the meaning of “citizen” that means a member in a state that has a government or any sort of ruling in place. Civilization takes many forms that may include division of labor, surplus of food, and organization of governments and religion. Many people should be cognizant, and understand that civilization is regarded......

Words: 1269 - Pages: 6

Indus Towers

...How can Indus reconcile the varying objectives of its stakeholder and realize its vision? The stakeholders started with a common vision. This vision was to direct their attention on what they do best, which was focusing on their core business of marketing and customer service while outsourcing the infrastructure development/maintenance to an outside party. They have realized that the industry has evolved, and infrastructure sharing has now become the norm. Service providers needed to embrace this trend, as resistance to it would not only increase their operating costs and reduce efficiencies, while diluting their core focus, thereby inadvertently rendering themselves less competitive. It has, therefore, become clear to the providers that it was imperative for their long term success and competitiveness to take the sharing approach and establish a joint infrastructure management venture which would benefit the stakeholders. As the three service providers were all in agreement that establishing a shared tower network is in their common best interest, it is now critical that they bring in a neutral executive team to run Indus. Up to this point, each of the Telecom company leaders who oversaw the inception of Indus had a vast array of roles and wore many different and divergent “hats.” As the case states on page 9 “they were simultaneously shareholder, board members, and representatives of customers.” While the advantage of having such well-rounded leaders was the fact that......

Words: 1347 - Pages: 6

Indus Valley Civilization

...Indus Valley civilization Introduction Have you heard about Indus Valley civilization? It’s one of the worlds’ four cradle of civilization, and one of the two ancient origins of Indian civilization. Also, it is the earliest civilization in India. However, it isn’t accepted as India’s history. From now on, let’s see it concretely. Body 1 Indus Valley civilization developed from about 2500 BCE. It was centered on a river and located in the basin of the Indus. Its exact location is match with today’s Pakistan. From 2300 BCE to 2000 BCE, the Indus Valley civilization met its heyday. Its urban culture was established at two main cities, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. These two cities were 40 miles away from each otehr and there are about 40,000 residents existed. Relatively, it was small population, but they constructed high-end habitation. Their cities had great sophisticated water technology, such as a drainage system. Body 2 Indus Valley civilization flourished until 1800 BCE, but after that time, it declined. Finally, it destroyed about 1500 BCE. There are many theories to explain how this great civilization faded away, and among those theories, invasion of Aryans has strong possibility. Because time of Aryans’ entering India and Indus Valley civilization’s collapsing is similar. Body 3 During the invasion process, it seems that Aryan culture, including Sanskrit is supposed to have absorbed many things from this Indus Valley civilization. First, there is strong evidence...

Words: 402 - Pages: 2

Amax and Indus

...pengendalian atas tiga jenis keputusan: keputusan produk, keputusan pemasaran, keputusan perolehan . Jika seorang manajer lini bisnis mengendalikan ketiga aktivitas tersebut biasanya tidak akan ada kesulitan dalam melaksanakan tanggung jawab laba dan mengukur kinerja. sourcing dan pemasaran untuk lini produk tunggal di pecah ke dalam dua unit bisnis atau lebih sehingga memisahkan kontribusi tiap tiap unit bisnis demi kesuksesan lini produk secara keseluruhan. . Pada umumnya semakin besar tingkat integrasi dalam suatu perusahaan maka semakin sulit melaksanakan tanggung jawab pusat laba tunggal untuk ketiga aktivitas tersebut dalam lini produk yang ada. yaitu akan lebih sulit jika keputusan produksi. Indus corporation Untuk setiap kasus, bagaimana organisasi dan pengendalian dalam Indus ? jawab Kasus A : Menurut pendapat kami, organisasi harus meningkatkan kinerja karyawan dengan cara memotivasi karyawannya supaya menghasilkan produk yang berkualitas sesuai yang dinginkan konsumen, sehingga dapat mengurangi tingkat pengerjaan ulang barang-barang yang cacat. Organisasi dapat meningkatkan inovasi karyawan untuk menumbuhkan sinergi produksi di seluruh lini produk yang ada dan menerapkan sistem manajemen yang lintas batas bukan yang berbasis fungsional, agar sinergi produksi dapat terjalin dengan baik. Kasus B : Menurut pendapat kami, organisasi harus meningkatkan kinerja karyawan dengan cara memotivasi karyawannya supaya menghasilkan produk yang berkualitas sesuai yang dinginkan......

Words: 826 - Pages: 4

Indus Valley Civilization

...The Indus Valley Civilisation I n 1922, when the discovery of the Indus Valley Civilisation came to light, it unearthed a new era in the history of India. Though there is no unanimity among historians and archaeologists about the antiquity of this ancient Bronze Age civilisation, a general overall span of 2500-1500 BC is agreed to by most. The Indus Valley Civilisation was the largest cultural zone of the period – it covered a vast 1.3 million square kilometres. It extended from Manda (J&K) in the north to Daimabad (Maharashtra) in the south, and from Suktagendor (Pakistan) in the west to Alamgirpur (Uttar Pradesh) in the east. Again there is no agreement among historians and anthropologists on the issue of the founders of the Indus Valley Civilisation. However, recent research has thrown up some conclusive evidence on this front: the founders were of a mixed stock—proto-Austroloid, Mediterranean, and Mongoloid. Urban civilisation The Indus Valley Civilisation was an urban civilisation. The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation are as follows: Mohenjodaro (Sindh, Pakistan), Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal (Gujarat), Chanhudaro (Sindh, Pakistan), Dholavira (Gujarat), Banawali (Haryana), and Surkotada (Gujarat). Common features across cities While there were distinguishing features between cities, they still had some common features. The foremost feature was the systematic town planning on the lines of......

Words: 915 - Pages: 4