Introduction and General Remarks for Ancient China

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ANCIENT CHINA 1
Introduction and General Remarks for Ancient China
Ancient civilizations of the Egyptians and Mesopotamians have long disappeared, but Ancient Chinese civilization and its transformation to modern times has lasted as the largest and most enduring one in human history. This is even more remarkable when observing the numerous leitmotifs of the Chinese society that were inaugurated so long ago, and many of these themes still resonate today. Ancestral worship, the Mandate of Heaven, and the numerous philosophical ideas, especially of Confucius, have been practiced or used for thousands of years. Remote and mysterious are two adjectives that Western Society has applied to China until recently.
China is the only civilization where western thought had no influence until modern times, and also practically the only large region in the world where western men never ruled. For westerners, Chinese customs seem reversed to theirs. White is the color of mourning for the Chinese not black, and for them the left side is one of honor not the right side. Writing is read vertically from the top right-hand corner downward. These few differences reveal that Chinese culture evolved independently of western influences.
One can only marvel at the longevity of Chinese civilization.
Influence of Geography
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Geography has played an important role in Chinese History as in most ancient, medieval, and modern cultures. While 85% of China is arid or inaccessible steppes, deserts or mountains, this has never kept China from creatively developing its natural resources. Today, China occupies nearly four million square miles, and is the third largest country in the world. Only
Russia and Canada are larger in area. Not until the early 1700’s did China reach its present size. About 3500 years ago it consisted of a number of small states in the region of the…...

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