Jean Piaget: Stages of Cognitive of Development

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By puertorico72
Words 572
Pages 3
Stages of Cognitive 1
Jean Piaget: Stages of Cognitive of Development

Stages of Cognitive Development
Nelson Caldero
Lifespan human Development
Gwen Zegestowsky, PsyD
Drexel University
January 12, 2013

Stages of Cognitive 2
Stages of Cognitive Development
Pre-operational (2-7 yrs.)
Children in this stage can use language, symbols, and words to refer to things, people and events that are not physically present (Sigelman & Rider, 2012, p. 217). However, their understanding of the world is limited. This stage involves egocentrism: the child believes that everyone sees the world the way they do. The child will have difficulty understanding the idea of another person’s perspective (Todd, Jean Piaget on Development). A child in this stage will also have trouble understanding conservation: the idea that the quantity of something may remain the same even though the appearance has changed (Sigelman & Rider, 2012, p. 217). For example, they would not comprehend that a tall, slim glass could hold as much water as a short, wide glass. A parenting example would be when a child leaves the door open in winter time. It does not do any good to tell the child that he is leaving the heat go outside. A parent should only teach the child to close the door.
Concrete operational (7-11 yrs.)
Children in this stage use operation in logical thinking in concrete situation. They become less egocentric and can see things from other’s perspectives. They also develop a concrete understanding of conservation: A child can see water poured into a glass and remember that it was in a pitcher (Sigelman & Rider, 2012, p. 221). However, the child is still tied to the immediate experience and may have difficulty with abstract terms or scientific and deductive reasoning. They are limited to the own conclusions (Todd, Jean Piaget on Development). A parent can expect a…...

Similar Documents

Jean Piagets Theory on Child Development

...Jean Paiget (1896-1980) was biologist who was originally studied molluscs. He was born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland he passed away September 16th 1980. Jean Piaget’s theory as 4 developmental stages these are, * The Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2 years) * The Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) * The Concrete Operational (7-11 years) * The Formal Operational Stage (11 years plus) All of these 4 developmental stages have sub-stages for each age range. Sensorimotor Sub-stages Simple reflexes - (birth-1 month old) At this time the infant uses natural reflexes that they were born with such as, sucking and rooting. In which they understand the environment purely on these actions. Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months) This stage a child may suck their thumb or finger by accident and then repeat the action intentionally for pleasure. Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months) The child becomes more focused of their immediate environment and likes to see the affects of their surroundings such as they may pick up a toy to place it in their mouth or move a toy to another place. Co-Ordination of Reactions (8-12 months) At this stage a child starts to explore their close surroundings such as picking up a set of toy keys and shake them to realise they make a noise once they are shaken. Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months) At this stage a child starts to practice attention seeking form a parent or a career by shouting, screaming or just generally......

Words: 954 - Pages: 4

Jean Piaget

...Ever wonder why children behave the way they do? According to theorist Jean Piaget there are some very simple explanations for this. Piaget explains through his theory of cognitive development, to what is occurring for a child at every stage of their live and how it gradually changes. The first stage of Piaget’s cognitive development is the sensorimotor stage. The sensorimotor stage is comprised of six sub-stages which begin at birth and are broken down specifically to age ranges of when development markers should occur up to two years of age. Piaget argues that an infant processes thought from sensory experiences with physical actions to gain an understanding of the world around them without judgment. Piaget argues that infants do not distinguish between the world and themselves meaning that objects have no permanency. For example, a toy given to a six month old, as long as it is in sight it exsists, but when distractions blocks the view of the toy, the child does not search for it because for them it is no longer there. Piaget’s theory is that infant should learn object permanence as they near the end of the sensorimotor stage (Santrock, 2010). In the preoperational stage Piaget contests that children with in the age range of two to seven years are beginning to think in a more egocentric kind of way. They are discovering themselves and the world around them. The children are unaware of differences in people and familiar objects. The child is oblivious to the......

Words: 851 - Pages: 4

Jean Piaget

...Jean Piaget Jean Piaget was an intriguing theorist who provided support that adults and children do not think alike. He dedicated his whole life to answer one single question, and that is “How does human knowledge develop?” He identified himself as a genetic epistemologist. Genetic epistemology is defined as the discovering of the roots of the different varieties of knowledge. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the origin, nature, extent, and limits of human knowledge. Piaget was interested not only in the nature of thought, but in how it develops and understands how genetics impact this process, (J. P Biography, 2013). This paper will discuss the contributions that Jean Piaget made to the field of learning and cognition. Additionally, it will address the models of cognition development associated with his theories as well as analyzing the relevancy of the models to modern day. Jean Piaget started studying natural science when he was just 11. He was born in 1896 and was a native to Switzerland. He received his PhD in Zoology in 1918. During his early work with Binet's intelligence tests, it had led him to assume that children think differently than adults do. Through this observation it inspired his interest to understand how knowledge continues to grow throughout childhood. He suggested that children sort the knowledge they acquire through their experiences and interactions into groupings known as schemas. When new information is acquired,......

Words: 773 - Pages: 4

B.F Skinner and Jean Piaget

...Learning from B.F Skinner and Jean Piaget The psychological studies of B.F Skinner and Jean Piaget in the field of learning revolutionized the understanding of learning processes, and undoubtedly paved the way for future psychologists. The findings of B.F Skinner and his theory on operant learning expanded the horizons of his generation. Jean Piaget also constructed the basis by which we evaluate the logical capabilities of youth, and he developed a theory of schemas. Both of these eminent psychologists have left a mark on the field of learning, and while both are dissimilar, they have common themes and continuities that cannot be overlooked. Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born on March 20, 1904, to William Arthur Skinner (a lawyer) and Grace Madge Burrhus, born with an aptitude for mechanical toys and gadgets. In his adolescence he showed interest in works by Charles Darwin and Francis Bacon. In his early adult life he attended Hamilton College in Clinton, New York where he studied English language and Literature, during his time at University he was heavily engaged in the campus magazine, and was known for his hand in pranks. After graduation he was exposed to Behaviorism by the literary magazine Dial, and read further into Conditioned Reflexes by Ivan Pavlov, he soon realized that he was interested in human behavior and was convinced by a close friend that science was the next big thing, he decided to engage in work in psychology. He enrolled at Harvard in 1928, and......

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

...Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget is a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. Piaget believed that children play an active role in the growth of intelligence. He regarded children as philosophers who perceive the world as he or she experiences it (ICELS). Therefore in Piaget’s most prominent work, his theory on the four stages of cognitive development, much of his inspiration came from observations of children. The theory of cognitive development focuses on mental processes such as perceiving, remembering, believing, and reasoning. Through his work, Piaget showed that children think in considerably different ways than adults do and as such he saw cognitive development as a progressive reorganization of mental processes resulting from maturation and experience (1973). To explain this theory, Piaget used the concept of stages to describe his development as a sequence of the four following stages: sensory – motor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations. There are three elements however to understanding his theory of cognitive development. They are schema, the fours process that enable transition from on stage to another, and finally the four stages themselves. He began his studies by making naturalistic observations. Piaget made careful, detailed observations of children, typically his own children or their friends, from these he wrote diary descriptions charting their......

Words: 2023 - Pages: 9

Jean Piaget

...Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development PIAGET’S BACKGROUND His was one of the most important, yet most controversial theories of cognitive development (Hetherington & Parke, 2000). In 1907 at age ten, he published his first scholarly article in a journal on a rare albino sparrow.1 The career of this philosopher, psychologist and observer of children began the day his wife said to him, “watch the children for a while, will you, Jean?”2 He is a philosopher, psychologist and observer of children.2 He studied in Paris with Alfred Binet. He began to focus on the relationship between psychology and biological science with particular emphasis on development. While assisting Binet to develop standardized IQ tests for children, Piaget noticed not only that children of the same age made similar errors but that these errors differed from those of older or younger children. His opinion about cognitive development began to form as he also observed that these differences in the types of children’s errors seemed to also show unique age-related thought style and understanding of the world. Thus, he opined that the study of what children know or do not know is an avenue to understand the changes in how they think.3 He adopted unstructured interviews with children, such that he would pose the children with a problem to solve or a question to answer. But he substituted detailed observations for formal interviews, and this approach led others to criticize his work. He later...

Words: 2569 - Pages: 11

Cognitive Development: Comparing the Main Ideas of Piaget and Vygotsky

...Cognitive Development: Comparing the Main Ideas of Piaget and Vygotsky Valerie Smith Cognitive Development: Comparing the Main Ideas of Piaget and Vygotsky The benefits of understanding cognitive development are many and varied, and yet there is still much that we do not know. Understanding the main theories that already exist can help in furthering our knowledge, and will spark new ideas for furthering the study of cognitive development. In this paper, I will compare the sociocultural view of Lev Vygotsky with Jean Piaget’s cognitive developmental view. Before discussing how these theorists differ, it is helpful to understand the main points of their theories. Sigelman & Rider (2011) state that Vygotsky believed that the cognitive growth of a child occurs strictly in a sociocultural context and would change and grow based on the child’s social interactions. He believed that cultural and social experiences affected not only what we think, but how we think. Piaget, on the other hand, would have said that children are actively creating their own knowledge through both their experiences and “inborn intellectual functions, which he called the organization and adaptation.” (Sigelman & Rider, 2011) One of the main questions of any discussion on development would revolve around whether or not development is universally experienced in the same way by all persons, or if development is context-specific (in other words, does our environment affect how we develop,......

Words: 805 - Pages: 4

Jean Piaget Theory of Cognitive Development

...An IQ test is a test designed to measure intellectual aptitude ,or ability to learn in school.Originally,intelligence was defined as mental age divided by chronological age,times 100-hence the term intelligent quotient or IQ. After taking the IQ test on the website ,I was not happy with my score and I don’t think it is an accurate assessment of my intellectual ability because i know I can do better than the score they gave me.English is not my first language,I am from Nigeria and an immigrant.I have to read the question very well and take my time to answer it but it stated in the test that each question should be answered in less than twenty seconds. I don’t think IQ test will predict academic achievement because the scores change,they are not consistent and i believe that no test can measure the complexities of the human brain.Many Studies suggest that people inherit a set of abilities,some high and some low,rather than a general intellectual ability(e.g Zhu et al,2010).Two leading developmentalists(Sternberg and Gardener) ...

Words: 524 - Pages: 3

The Cognitive Stages of Development

...The Piaget’s Stages of Development was thought up by a Psychologist and developmental biologist Jean Piaget. Cognitive development also known as intelligence development as described by Piaget through these four stages: Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete operational, Formal Operational. The sensorimotor stage is when children come to realize that objects exist and tend to experiment greatly by throwing stuff around or putting it in their mouth. They know the object is real even if they can’t see it. This is a sign that intelligence is developing. This stage occurs from birth up to about 2 years. Then there’s the pre-operational stage when the child becomes egocentric, they have problems distinguishing their thoughts and perception from that of others. This occurs between the ages of 2 to 7. The Concrete operational stage is when children begin to realize that their feelings and opinions are unique and may not be in unison with everyone else. (7-11 years) Lastly the Formal operational stage is when adolescents can relate a relative thought to an abstract scenario. This is when problem solving comes into play and sometimes the individual can solve the problem before it even happens. One of the limitations to this theory is that Piaget underestimates the ability of the infants and even individuals at other stages because it has been proven that even infants have a certain intellectual capacity and may surpass what is known as the norm for babies. One of the......

Words: 295 - Pages: 2

Jean Piaget

...Cognitive Theorist -Jean Piaget Erika Rakes Psy- 390 November 24, 2014 Matthew Pearcy Cognitive Theorist - Jean Piaget Jean Piaget was a Swiss developmental psychologist & philosopher, when it came to his career of course, has had a profound conclusion on both education and psychology. Throughout his career, Jean Piaget worked to compose a plethora of contributions to learning and also to cognition. This model that has been developed by Piaget still has modern day relevancy. Olson, M. H. & Hergenhahn, B. R. (2013). An introduction to theories of learning (9th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Contributions to learning and Cognition Piaget has created a plethora of contributions to learning and cognition by theories which in being beneficial to understanding the cognitive characteristics between adults and children. He has implemented as well as sustained for the idea of children and adults think differently. Piaget’s endeavors’ also bring about and increased interest in developmental and cognitive psychology. However when students in education and psychology, they study the theories of Piaget to understand learning and cognition. When we speak of implementing Piaget’s theories of cognitive development to education of children is yet another donation that enables the effective teaching of children (Kuhn, 1979). The last contribution of Piaget the creation of the International Center for Genetic Epistemology, this was created in 1955. ...

Words: 886 - Pages: 4

Stages of Cognitive Development

...Stages of Cognitive Development AED202 October 12, 2013 Lisa Miller Infancy: Ages birth to two years of age From the time a baby is born they have the ability to learn. A remarkable sense of hearing is one of the same as will be for their entire life. The attention span is drawn to any source of stimulation. As they mature into the later stages of infancy, the skills of classifying becomes a concept that is basic at the start but becomes more complex as maturity and brain development occur. Placing basic items such as toys in one area while their articles of clothing go completely in another area is mastered. The visual compression becomes more precise after age one year to which exploring their world becomes very interesting and curious. Early Childhood: Ages two to six years of age. Within this stage children have a very short attention span. This short span causes distraction mainly discovered in the early academic years. Instructors know they only have a limited time to capture the students’ attention so changing activities often can have the students succeed. Children’s prior knowledge differs markedly depending on their cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds (Child development: Educating and Working With Children and Adolescents, 2004). Middle Childhood: Ages six to ten years of age These children develop longer attention spans and distractibility is reduced. The knowledge base increases as exposure to outside stimuli......

Words: 401 - Pages: 2

Jean Piaget

...using appropriate illustrations, the extent to which gender stereotyping conforms to Jean Piaget’s four stages of development, which he elaborated in his Theory of Cognitive Development. It will first begin by clearly defining the terms; ‘gender,’ ‘stereotype,’ and hence the term ‘gender stereotyping.’ It will thereafter define cognitive development and will furthermore discuss in depth the stages of cognitive development, which are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational respectively. A critical assessment will then be made on the extent to which gender stereotyping acts in accordance to Piaget’s stages of development, to aid one have a final opinion of his Theory of Cognitive Development. Gender was a word used by Ann Oakley and others in the 1970s to describe the characteristics of men and women that are socially determined, in contrast to the ones that are biologically determined. Gender is therefore a term referring to the social and cultural construction of men and women. The word stereotype is defined as an organised set of beliefs concerning the characteristics of all members of a defined group (Golombok, 1995). Therefore, gender stereotyping is the overgeneralisation about the characteristics of an entire group of people based on their gender. It is the perception of people on how others should behave. According to Piaget (1952), cognitive development was a progressive reorganisation of mental processes as a result of biological......

Words: 1849 - Pages: 8

Jean Piaget Developmental Theory

...Jean Piaget (year 1896 to 1980) was working at the “Binet Institute” (1920s), where his task was to expand French descriptions of questions on English aptitude papers. Piaget became stratagem with the explanations/ causes children gave for their incorrect solutions to the questions that needed logical thoughts/ opinion. He thought that these wrong answers exposed significant differences between the thoughts of children and adults. (YouTube, 2015) Piaget (1936) explained his task as “genetic epistemology” (that is, the origins of thoughts). Genetics is the systematic study of where stuff comes from (their beginning). “Epistemology” is alarmed with the fundamental categories of thoughts, which are to state, the structural or framework elements of intelligence. Piaget required to do was not to calculate how fine children could spell, count, or solve issues as a way of ranking their Intelligence Quotient. He was more engrossed in was the method in which basic concepts like the very thought of justice, causality, quantity, time, number and so on appeared. (YouTube, 2015) Piaget (1936) was the 1st psychologist to make a methodical study of “cognitive development”. His assistance involve a theory of child cognitive growth, comprehensive observational studies of cognition in kids, as well as a sequence of easy but inventive tests to disclose various cognitive capabilities. Previous to Piaget’s task, the ordinary supposition in psychology was that kids are just less knowledgeable......

Words: 867 - Pages: 4

Jean Piaget

...Jean Piaget Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland on August 9th, 1896. He was the oldest of three children, and the only boy. His father was Arthur Piaget, a professor of medieval literature. His mother was Rebecca Jackson, and his godfather was the Swiss scholar Samuel Cornut. In 1923, he married Valentine Chatenay. The couple had three children, Jacqueline, Lucienne, and Laurent. Piaget died in Geneva on September 16, 1980, after a brilliant scientific career made of over sixty books and several hundred articles (Papert, 1999). Piaget’s greatest contribution was to found the field of cognitive development. He believed children are the biggest manufacturers of their own development, as man’s capacity for logical thought is not learned but embedded along with hair color and sex, in his genes. In other words, a child cannot be forced to develop understanding any faster than the rate at which his powers mature to their full potential, so there is a limit to what overeager parents and teachers can achieve. On the flip side, a child who does not get the chance to apply his developing abilities and test limitations may never reach his full intellectual capacity (Pramling, 2006). According to Jurczak (1997), Piaget believed in four stages of cognitive development: • Stage 1: Sensorimotor – Newborn to Age 2 The child’s primary concern is mastering his own innate physical reflexes and extending them into interesting or pleasurable actions. During this time, the child......

Words: 1869 - Pages: 8

Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development

...Introduction Over the years there have been a countless number of theorists developing their own models on Cognitive Development, with the two most recognised being the theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Semenovich Vygotsky. Although it is difficult to present the title of ‘superior theory’ to either one of these theorists, the merging of certain aspects of each scheme provides teachers with an ability to devise effective learning strategies that cater for individual students. As a direct result of these Piagetian and Vygotskian concepts, students possess the ability to develop and learn at a rate more specified to their learning ability. Review of Literature Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, the assimilation-accommodation model, is composed of four stages, sensorimotor (0 - 2 years), preoperational (2 – 7 years), concrete operational (7 – 11 years) and formal operational (11 – adult). Candida Peterson (2004) claims that within Piaget’s theory, each stage must be sufficiently achieved by the individual in order to advance to the next stage, although there is debate about whether we all do reach the final stage. Piaget believes that the most significant aspect of a child's cognitive development is the interaction between peers, rather than elders, the outside environment, as illustrated by Youniss (1982). Piaget recognised that the rate of cognitive development is determined by four factors, biological maturation, activity, social interaction and equilibration, as......

Words: 1330 - Pages: 6