Language as a Resource of Internal and International Relations of "Nations Without States"

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language as a resource of internal and international activity of “nations without states”.

bulat n. khalitov, kazan state power engineering university, kazan, russia

The issues of language and language policy have become the objects of interest of different branches of political theory nowadays. From one side the basic reason for this is the fact that language can play an important role (either positive or negative) in the context of different political processes developing in the world and also in the context of a growing number of confrontations and conflicts, which often have linguistic diversity at their basis. From the other side, the development of political theory within the framework of general “linguistic turn” that influenced almost all social sciences leads to the studying of language policy aspects. In modern world linguistic diversity and other language issues have turned into a significant basis of contradictions that influence stability of different societies. In Western Europe we can distinguish several types of unsolved problems which have to do with language. Diachronically the most important and most severe are conflicts between the dominant language group and various linguistic minorities historically rooted in some areas within the state borders. As an example we can name linguistic conflicts in Belgium (Flanders), Spain (Catalonia and Basque country), Italy (South Tirol), Switzerland (french- and italian-speaking cantons). Linguistic conflicts in general grow more intense when the dominant linguistic group tends to impose its language as a state one on the whole territory of the state, including the regions that minorities view as their historical homeland. Such hegemonic language policy normally conveys strong opposition – from occasional protests to separatist movements. In this case the state and its leadership…...

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