Little Albert

In: Other Topics

Submitted By kikishin
Words 620
Pages 3
Homework: Little Albert. 1. Did the results of Watson and Rayner's experiment support their hypothesis?
- Yes, it did. The hypothesis was that most human behaviours and emotional reactions are built up on conditioned response. The result from the conditioning Watson and Rayner subject Albert to proves this hypothesis because Albert responded to the unconditioned stimulus which was brought around by the unconditioned response that is also known as fear. After combining these specific factors, the rat became the conditioned stimulus and that elicited a conditioned response from Albert. A conditioned response in this case, is fear.
2. How did Albert's response become generalised?
- Albert’s response became generalised after he was subjected to ‘conditioning’ by Watson and Rayner when he was eleven years old. They instill the fear of rats within Albert and not soon after, they present him with the same toys back when he was nine years old. Albert was afraid of the toys that look even remotely furry such as a dog, a rabbit and a Santa Claus mask. However, Albert was not afraid of the blocks that were presented to him and from there, both Watson and Rayner have concluded that Albert is afraid of furry objects and therefore they have generalised his fear based upon the results of their experiment that was conducted on him.
3. How were the principles of classical conditioning used to reduce Peter's fear of rabbits?
- The principles of classical conditioning were used to create an extinction procedure which is also known as counter-conditioning. Counter-conditioning can reduce people’s existing fears such as a fear of rabbits, loud noises and clowns. It was one of Watson’s students, Mary Cover Jones, that first developed counter-conditioning as a means of cure to combat her mentor’s classical conditioning. It would only be logical that there should be a treatment for…...

Similar Documents

Albert Bandura

...Essay 4 Pieter van Rooyen 17333652 Albert bandura can be regarded as one of the most important representatives of social cognitive learning theories. He’s theory on observational learning (learning by observing behavior) is the single most important form of learning. He argues that people learn most of their behavior through observation and only a little through direct contact. The reason for this is the complexity of most behavior, and that this can’t be learned through verbal instructions. This essay will focus on the principles of observational learning, highlight the strength and weaknesses, and also how observational learning can promote positive intergroup relations on campus at the University of Stellenbosch. Observation is a common learning tool and many, if not most do it unconsciously. The term modeling is used to describe this. This is when an observer observes the behavior of a model and then repeats the behavior. There are a few factors that influence this observational learning. They are the nature of the modeled behavior, the characteristics of the model, the characteristics of the observer, the result of the models behavior and the self-efficacy perception of the observer. The nature of the modeled behavior refers to the actual behavior. The situation in which the behavior takes place and if it is new or old behavior. New behavior attracts more attention than old behavior. The characteristics of the model plays an important role in observation learning....

Words: 577 - Pages: 3

Little Emotional Albert

...Reading # 10 Little Emotional Albert Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1-14. In 1920 J.B. Watson and R. Rayner studied the classical conditioning of emotional responses. John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner's Little Albert study involved attempted conditioning of an infant known as Albert B. Some researchers see the work as way to explore classical conditioning as a mechanism of change in emotional behavior in young children, while other researchers view the work as a way to advance understanding in psychopathology. The study, however, must be viewed in light of the early nineteenth century methodology employed as well as the study's modest results. Perhaps as interesting as the study itself is the historical pattern created by psychologists' accounts of the work. In the years since the publication of the Little Albert study, its methods and results have been described many times. Some researchers believe that the study's importance and its theoretical offerings have been overstated in the literature. The Little Albert study was designed to test the premises that an infant can be conditioned to fear an animal that appears at the same time as a loud sound that was previously identified to arouse fear in the infant, that the fear would generalize to other animals or inanimate objects, and that such fears would persist over a period of time. On pretesting, nine-month-old Albert was shown to display......

Words: 819 - Pages: 4

Case of Little Albert

...learn from watching the behavior of the person there would be a lot of factors and conditions that would have to be ethically applied which is why John Watsons case of Little Albert leaves a lot of questions. Psychological testing and theories all play a significant part in psychology. Over time people have learned what to do and what not to do. Ethics seem to always be a question especially when dealing with psychology. I think this is true because there always seems to be some type of controversy to the science and experimentation of it. In the name of science there have been experiments and studies that have been questionable and whether or not they were ethical or not. Over the years a considerable amount of controversy has taken place due to one specific study. This study was over a little boy whom they called Albert and was conducted by John B. Watson, known as the founder of behaviorism, with the aid of his assistant later turned wife Rosalie Rayner. This test by Watson has brought up many questions and debates. It is no wonder that Watson choose the experiment or study on little Albert, he himself had somewhat of a rebellious streak about him and was even described by one of his professors as a “nonconformist” (Schultz & Schultz p. 212). The research done by John Watson in the Little Albert case may have helped to develop a better understanding to behavior but it would be unethical today. A study such as the one conducted by Watson today would result in......

Words: 1130 - Pages: 5

Little Albert

...A Reflection Paper on the Article : Little Emotional Albert In the history of psychology, we can see how the tsunami-like waves of Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory engulfed most of the study of human behavior and mental processes in mid 1900’s. such breakthrough provided convincing explanations about he dimension of man in accordance to the discipline of psychology. Freudians’ conception that we are governed by our unconscious desires and repressed emotions prove to be cunning enough to leave the rest of the world agrees to their claim. Freud’s brainchild stood up like invincible walls – until an attempt to shake and bang the wall down took place. Although we can say that the wall was not completely toppled down, we cannot deny the fact that it left huge cracks and holes to it, paving the way for another dogma to emerge. With an agitate esprit to counter Freud’s theory, Watson and his colleagues delivered the birth of Behaviorism. Banking on the idea that behavior is generated outside the person through various environmental or situational stimuli, Watson was eager to provide justice to his point. Through his works, he figured that the environment played a very significant role in shaping one’s behavior. Watson and company espoused on the idea that emotional responses exists in us because we have been conditioned to respond emotionally to a certain stimuli in the environment. Therefore, emotional responses and all other human behavior are learned through conditioning...

Words: 1646 - Pages: 7

Little Albert and Classical Conditioning

...Little Albert and Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning may be defined as; a kind of associative learning where two stimuli happen in a combined as well as frequent manner because of which, they ultimately become linked with each other. The outcome of this union is that each stimulus sooner or later generates an identical response. In fact, this technique is applied in behavioral training in which Unconditioned Stimulus (US) is paired with and leads towards the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) until the conditioned stimulus unaccompanied is enough to bring out the response (Abell et al., 1999). To understand it clearly, there is need to recall the experiment performed by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner in 1920. Watson suggested that psychological researches should be based merely on apparent behaviors and due to this viewpoint, his research was related with conditioning of fear (learned). He demonstrated above conditioning via usual procedures including association of stimuli, and research subject chosen by him for the purpose was an 11-month old child Albert. Albert was an extremely firm infant who hardly ever exhibited fear of anything involving the white rat present in laboratory, but Watson and Rayner noticed that he was afraid of loud noises (Unconditioned Stimulus). They decided to implement this innate fear response (Unconditioned Response (UR)) shown by Albert as a tool in their study. So; they created piercing sound by striking a big steel pipe with hammer. ...

Words: 964 - Pages: 4

The Life of Albert Einstein

...Albert Einstein Of all the scientists to emerge from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there is one whose name is known by almost all living people. While most of these do not understand this man's work, everyone knows that its impact on the world of science is astonishing. Yes,many have heard of Albert Einstein's General Theory of relativity, but few know about the intriguing life that led this scientist to discover what some have called, "The greatest single achievement of human thought." Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on March 14, 1874. Before his first birthday, his family had moved to Munich where young Albert's father, Hermann Einstein, and uncle set up a small electro-chemical business. He was fortunate to have an excellent family with which he held a strong relationship. Albert's mother, Pauline Einstein, had an intense passion for music and literature, and it was she that first introduced her son to the violin in which he found much joy and relaxation. Also, he was very close with his younger sister, Maja, and they could often be found in the lakes that were scattered about the countryside near Munich. As a child, Einstein's sense of curiosity had already begun to stir. A favorite toy of his was his father's compass, and he often marveled at his uncle's explanations of algebra. Although young Albert was intrigued by certain mysteries of science, he was considered a slow learner. His failure to become fluent in......

Words: 1696 - Pages: 7

Albert Einstein

...Albert Einstien Albert Einstein Every era has its own heroes. People who stood out amongst the rest. The human race is such a young species compared to the others that we share this amazing planet with. Because we are so young, we still have a lot to learn. I was once told that a day without learning something new, is a day wasted. There is no reason that you should not learn one new thing every day. The world is an amazing place that has so much to offer and so much to learn. How one decides to accomplish the above statement is up to them. There are going to be people who take that a little more serious than others. Among the people of the 19th century that stand out, Albert Einstein is one that has become a house hold name because of the discoveries and theories he was able to come up with in his lifetime. As you read history books, it will be hard not to see Albert Einstein’s name. He alone has made some of the more significant discoveries in our history as a race. The way he was able to achieve this was not in the way one would think. When typically thinking of a person such as Einstein, what comes to mind is someone who spent their lives as a professor in a university, where they were able to spend their time expanding their knowledge and share theories with people of their same intelligence. This environment would allow for them to grow their knowledge by the influences of their surroundings. However this is not the case for Einstein. It......

Words: 294 - Pages: 2

Albert Einstine

..."Einstein" redirects here. For other uses, see Albert Einstein (disambiguation) and Einstein (disambiguation). Albert Einstein | Albert Einstein in 1921 | Born | 14 March 1879 Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg,German Empire | Died | 18 April 1955 (aged 76) Princeton, New Jersey, United States | Residence | Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, United States | Citizenship | * Kingdom of Württemberg (1879–1896) * Stateless (1896–1901) * Switzerland (1901–1955) * Austria–Hungary (1911–1912) * German Empire (1914–1918) * Weimar Republic (1919–1933) * United States (1940–1955) | Fields | Physics | Institutions | * Swiss Patent Office (Bern) * University of Zurich * Charles University in Prague * ETH Zurich * Caltech * Prussian Academy of Sciences * Kaiser Wilhelm Institute * University of Leiden * Institute for Advanced Study | Alma mater | * ETH Zurich * University of Zurich | Thesis | Folgerungen aus den Capillaritatserscheinungen (1901) | Doctoral advisor | Alfred Kleiner | Other academic advisors | Heinrich Friedrich Weber | Notable students | * Abdul Jabbar Abdullah * Ernst G. Straus * Nathan Rosen * Leó Szilárd * Raziuddin Siddiqui[1] | Known for | * General relativity and special relativity * Photoelectric effect * Mass-energy equivalence * Theory of Brownian Motion * Einstein field equations * Bose–Einstein statistics * Bose–Einstein condensate * Bose–Einstein correlations...

Words: 7246 - Pages: 29

Albert Einst

...Albert Einstein’s Life 1879 Born to Hermann Einstein and his wife Pauline in Ulm, Germany. 1884 Receives his first compass around this time, inspiring him to have a life of discovering and solving mysteries of the world. 1889 Albert started teaching himself. At age 10 and begins reading as much about science as he can. 1894 Stays on in Munich to finish the school year after his parents move to Pavia, Italy. Lasts only one term by himself and then follows his family to Italy. 1895 Tried to skip high school by taking an exam to the Swiss Polytechnic University, but failed the arts portion. His family sends him to the Swiss town of Aarau to finish high school. He graduates from High school four years later and enrolls at the ETH (the Federal Polytechnic School) in Zurich. 1898 Falls in love with Mileva Maric, a Serbian classmate at the ETH. 1900 Graduates from the ETH. 1901 Becomes a Swiss citizen and, unemployed, searches for work. Meets Maric in northern Italy for a tryst, and she becomes pregnant. In the fall, he finds work in Schaffhausen, Switzerland as a tutor. Maric, moves to Stein am Rhein, three miles upriver. She then returns to her parents' home to give birth to her child. Einstein moves to Bern. 1902 In January, Maric gives birth to their daughter, Lieserl, who they eventually put up for adoption. Lieserl apparently becomes ill, and then all record of her disappears. Einstein takes a job at the Swiss Patent Office. Hermann Einstein becomes ill and...

Words: 637 - Pages: 3


...journal of management. Figure1 Wilson, C. (2010), Bruce Tuckman’s Forming, Storming, Norming & Performing Team Development Model. Available from: and[Accessed on 9 December 2014]. Appendix Date: 01, 10, 2104 Activity: First class and first impression in cross-culture Experience: In my experience, first impression is really important, it might influence others have positive or negative opinion of you. Few month ago when I meet my flatmate, he is from Hong Kong, and at first impressive I am have misunderstood of him because my friend told me he look like a little serious, so I thought he is a not easygoing, and at first meeting we did not talk, but after when we become friend I found he is not serious and we become good friends. Feeling: I feel warming when I was sick, he was cook for me and I thought he is rally a nice guy, and always take care of others. Thoughts: I think it is common to have an existing impression when we meet other people at first time, but the most important is give each other have a chance and get alone with each other, maybe you will change your opinion with others. Reflection: I think I am really grateful to live with him, although at first we did not be a friend quickly, but in this process we show our friendly to each other and try to care each other’s......

Words: 1623 - Pages: 7

Albert Einstein

...Albert Einstein Albert Einstein had little resistance attending school. Some say that Einstein had dyslexia. Einstein showed language impairments at a very young age. His family believed he may be slow because of the abnormal period of time before he began to talk. Between the ages of two and three Einstein began to speak whole sentences. According to most researchers they believed that Einstein was withdrawn from the world as a boy. When Einstein started school he did surprisingly well. At the age of 16 Einstein failed the college exam the first time plainly because he did not study and later learned that it’s a bad choice to not prepare for a test. Einstein is a clear example of a person who is listed with learning disabilities in today's schools. If you have the right approach to education than labels can’t stop you from making great accomplishments, which is proven by Einstein and others like Thomas Edison, Leonardo de Vinci, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Winston Churchill, and Walt Disney. Einstein made many contributions to mathematics. The first is the Special Theory of Relativity, which essentially deals with the question of whether rest and motion are relative or absolute, and with the consequences of Einstein’s conjecture that they are relative. The second is the General Theory of Relativity, which primarily applies to particles as they accelerate, particularly due to gravitation, and acts as a radical revision of Newton’s theory, predicting important......

Words: 479 - Pages: 2

Albert Einstein

...with the same thinking we used when we created them. Albert Einstein was a German-born physicist who developed the general theory of relativity, among other feats. He is considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century. Born in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany in 1879, Albert Einstein had a passion for inquiry that eventually led him to develop the special and general theories of relativity. In 1921, he won the Nobel Prize for physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect and immigrated to the U.S. in the following decade after being targeted by the Nazis. Einstein is generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century, with his work also having a major impact on the development of atomic energy. With a focus on unified field theory during his later years, Einstein died on April 18, 1955, in Princeton, New Jersey. Einstein attended elementary school at the Luitpold Gymnasium in Munich. However, he felt alienated there and struggled with the institution's rigid pedagogical style. He also had what were considered to be speech challenges, though he developed a passion for classical music and playing the violin that would stay with him into his later years. Most significantly, Einstein's youth was marked by deep inquisitiveness and inquiry.  Towards the end of the 1880s, Max Talmud, a Polish medical student who sometimes dined with the Einstein family, became an informal tutor to young Albert. Talmud had introduced his pupil to a children’s......

Words: 286 - Pages: 2


...unfairly based on your gender, race or background at the end of the day.  Is that fair?  Well my fellow people that is the society in which we live in. DO you want to change it cause I do, but I feel in order to change it we should start off with where we come from. I am a Malaysian and I would like to fight for the equality of opportunities and income in South East Asia. I would first like to bring attention to equal opportunities, I fight for equal opportunities because it means that everyone has a fair chance to succeed in society in material of their status , gender or race .The key in creating equal opportunities is EDUCATION.  Education is key because in South East Asia there are only THREE economically develop country.. why so little to the lack in emphasise of education. In order to tackle this problem we need to inform,invest,implement. Due to majority of the South East Asian country being Less economic develop we should inform the citizens the importance of education and how education is vital to achieving a better future, the government and the society should invest in building infrastructures for education and invest in scholarship Programs such as Kasana which we have here in school and the governments should implement compulsory education. The government should also push for higher education, as the enrolment rate of secondary education in Malaysia is 50% and only 38% in Myanmar. A higher level of education will allow high quality jobs, which will......

Words: 550 - Pages: 3

Albert Einstein

...Albert Einstein Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Six weeks later the family moved to Munich, where he later on began his schooling at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland and in 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor's degree. During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton*. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945. After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement, he was offered the......

Words: 787 - Pages: 4

Albert Camus

...Ethics Final Exam Albert Camus encourages the process of suicide because he believes that “life is meaningless”, so it does not matter if the life of a person is taken away. He does not believe in the saying life is precious. Camus makes a connection by displaying “game” as the symbol of life. He explains, “One must follow and understand this fatal game that leads from lucidity in the face of existence.” [1]If people understand the game then they have better chance of understanding what their purpose is in the world. Louis Hope Walker a theist, contest with Camus because his beliefs are that religion, in particular the theistic religion gives a special meaning to life. Walker shows that life has a purpose. Meaning and independence are important factors in every ones life and that they are compatible within the religious framework. Autonomy is important because GOD gave every one free will and intellect, so we need it on determining what is considered good and bad. He supposes that we should give up a little freedom in order to obtain more happiness. Geneus 2 Value does not always make a person seem good, but the enormous increase of happiness does. He gives the example of “what if we were able to eliminate poverty, crime, and great suffering in the world by sacrificing at least one independent ability, would people take part in such involvement.” [2]If people did, autonomy would be decreased. Victor Frankl a member of the concentration camp, on......

Words: 831 - Pages: 4