In: Philosophy and Psychology

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1. Are there facts of right and wrong, or are these values relative or subject to cultural variations?


2. Descartes wrote, “Cogito ergo sum” – “I think, therefore I am.”


3. Plato’s theory of forms asserts that the world we think we see around us is an illusion.

4. “Descartes argues that there is no less contradiction in conceiving a supremely perfect being who lacks existence than there is in conceiving a triangle whose interior angles do not sum to 180 degrees. Hence, he supposes, since we do conceive a supremely perfect being — we do have the idea of a supremely perfect being — we must conclude that a supremely perfect being exists” (Oppy, 2007, para. 3). ____________

5. Can reason reveal knowledge, or must we depend on sense-experience for all knowledge?

6. Do colors exist on the surfaces of objects, or are they dependent on the minds of perceivers?


7. Do objects of value have an objective value, or is value subjective?

8. Where is the line drawn between knowledge and belief?

9. Kant argued that existence is not a property that someone or something can “have.” Existence is not part of any concept; therefore, “God exists” must not be true.

10. Plato’s one-over-many argument holds that, “All beautiful things have something in common: namely beauty itself. Now this ‘something’—beauty itself—must exist in addition to all the particular beautiful things there are, for clearly, none of the particulars is beauty itself. After all, each of the particulars could always be more beautiful than it is, whereas that is not true of beauty itself. And while the particulars may change and even cease to be beautiful, beauty itself is changeless” (Law, 2007, p. 80).

11. We should judge whether an action is right or wrong by the intention behind the action.

12. How do…...

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