Normalization in Dbms

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Normalization is a method for organizing data elements in a database into tables.

Normalization Avoids * Duplication of Data – The same data is listed in multiple lines of the database * Insert Anomaly – A record about an entity cannot be inserted into the table without first inserting information about another entity – Cannot enter a customer without a sales order * Delete Anomaly – A record cannot be deleted without deleting a record about a related entity. Cannot delete a sales order without deleting all of the customer’s information. * Update Anomaly – Cannot update information without changing information in many places. To update customer information, it must be updated for each sales order the customer has placed

Normalization is a three stage process – After the first stage, the data is said to be in first normal form, after the second, it is in second normal form, after the third, it is in third normal form
Before Normalization 1. Begin with a list of all of the fields that must appear in the database. Think of this as one big table. 2. Do not include computed fields 3. One place to begin getting this information is from a printed document used by the system. 4. Additional attributes besides those for the entities described on the document can be added to the database.
Before Normalization – Example
See Sales Order from below:

Fields in the original data table will be as follows: SalesOrderNo | Date | CustomerNo | CustomerName | CustomerAdd | ClerkNo | ClerkName | ItemNo | Description | Qty | UnitPrice | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Think of this as the baseline – one large table
Normalization: First Normal Form * Separate Repeating Groups into New Tables. * Repeating Groups Fields that may be repeated several times for one…...

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