Ofdm

In: Science

Submitted By hardikkapadiya16
Words 2381
Pages 10
Document Type: Prentice Hall
Author: John G. Proakis and Masoud Salehi
Book: Communication Systems Engineering
Copyright: 2002
ISBN: 0-13-061793-8
NI Supported: No
Publish Date: Sep 6, 2006

Multicarrier Modulation and OFDM
Overview
This tutorial is part of the National Instruments Signal Generator Tutorial series. Each tutorial in this series, will teach you a specific topic of common measurement applications, by explaining the theory and giving practical examples. This tutorial covers multicarrier modulation and OFDM. For additional signal generator concepts, refer to the Signal Generator Fundamentals main page.
Table of Contents
1. Multicarrier Modulation and OFDM
2. Further Reading
3. Relevant NI products
Multicarrier Modulation and OFDM
In the preceding sections, we considered digital transmission through nonideal channels and observed that such channels cause intersymbol interference when the reciprocal of the system rate is significantly smaller than the time dispersion (duration of the impulse response) of the nonideal channel. In such a case, a channel equalizer is employed at the receiver to compensate for the channel distortion. If the channel is a bandpass channel with a specified bandwidth, the information-bearing signal may be generated at the baseband and then translated in frequency to the passband of the channel. Thus, the information-bearing signal is transmitted on a single carrier. We also observed that intersymbol interference usually results in some performance degradation, even in the case where the optimum detector is used to recover the information symbols at the receiver.
An alternative approach to the design of a bandwidth-efficient communication system in the presence of channel distortion is to subdivide the available channel bandwidth into a number of equal-bandwidth subchannels, where the bandwidth of each…...

Similar Documents

Antenna Design

...TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION 39 6.3 DATA GENERATION, TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION 41 6.4 BER CALCULATION AND RESULTS 41 CHAPTER 7-ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES 7.1 ADVANTAGES 44 7.2 CHALLENGES 45 CHAPTER 8-APPLICATIONS 8.1 APPLICATIONS 47 CHAPTER 9- CONCLUSION 9.1 CONCLUSION 49 APPENDIX A ERROR PROBABILITY FOR COHERENT BPSK 51 REFERENCES 55 LIST OF FIGURES PAGE NO. Figure 1.1-The comparison between conventional FDM and the OFDM. 7 Figure 1.2- Traditional view of receiving signals carrying modulation. 7 Figure 1.3- OFDM Spectrum. 7 Figure1.4- Discrete-time system model of OFDMA. 9 Figure 1.5- Blocked and interleaved OFDMA. 10 Figure 2- Feature of SSA. 12 Figure 4.1.1-Main flow chart. 19 Figure 4.1.2-Flow chart when 2 users fall in 3,5,8,14. 21 Figure 4.1.3-Flow chart when all 3 user fall in 3,5,8,14. 24 Figure......

Words: 7933 - Pages: 32

Introduction to Ofdm

...Introduction to OFDM, II edition 10/30/98/TUD-TVS 1 OFDM as a possible modulation technique for multimedia applications in the range of mm waves Duš Matiæ an Abstract - In this paper is given an overview of a multiple carrier modulation technique known as OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex). It focuses on problems that are specific for its use in the future mobile multimedia communications (MMC) in the range of 60 GHz. I Introduction Multimedia is effectively an infrastructure technology with widely different origins in computing, telecommunications, entertainment and publishing. New applications are emerging, not just in the wired environment, but also in the mobile one. At present, only low bit-rate data services are available to the mobile users. However, demands of the wireless multimedia broadband system are anticipated within both public and private sector. This report discusses possible ways to enable multimedia communications in the mobile environment. Multimedia communication has a rather large demands upon bandwidth and quality of service (QoS) compared to what is available today to the mobile user. Bitrates for multimedia span from a few Kb/s, for voice, to about 20 Mb/s for HDTV, or even more in the peaks. When solving this problem, first question is how to put this large bit stream on air with sufficient QoS guaranties, i.e. which modulation can compromise all contradicting requirements in the best manner. The radio environment is harsh,...

Words: 8198 - Pages: 33

Cognitive Radio Network

...1.1.4 Spectrum Sharing . . . 1.1.5 Network Coding . . . . Assumption and Limitation . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization of Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii iii iv v vi ix 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1.2 1.3 1.4 II. Literature Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Wireless Communication . . Cognitive Radio Network . . OFDM . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages of OFDM . . . . Disadvantages of OFDM . . . Characteristics and Principles OFDM in CRN . . . . . . . . vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 2.9 Cooperative Cognitive Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis of Network Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9.1 Broadcasting in Single Channel Wireless Networks 2.9.2 Reactive Network Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9.3 Proactive Network Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10 Broadcasting in Multi Channel Wireless Networks . . . . . 2.11 Advantages of Adaptive Power......

Words: 9257 - Pages: 38

Re: Week 2 Discussion 222

...allocated by some government regulatory agency, or the signal occupied bandwidth? And is the signal occupied bandwidth measured from the PSD at the -3dB points, the -6dB points, the 60dB points; or by some other measure entirely like the 99% power containment bandwidth? Most theoretical values for bandwidth efficiency assume ideal brickwall bandlimiting, making them upper bounds since such signals cannot actually be built. III. SURVEY OF MODERN WIRELESS SIGNALS In the world today the dominant cellular communication signals are standardized through the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). At the time of this writing, network operators using 3GPP signals carry over 90% of all cellular traffic. In addition, Bluetooth™ and multicarrier (OFDM) signals, like that used for WiMAX, are presented. Information for this survey is a subset of the signals examined in detail in [8]. GSM/GPRS [3] In an attempt to keep the low implementation cost from NBFM used in first generation cellular networks, GSM adopted the constant envelope GMSK (1 bit per symbol) signal. Basic characteristics of GMSK are shown in Fig. 4. The PSD in Fig. 4a shows slopes with increasing offset frequency (from the carrier). This makes the occupied bandwidth of the GSM signal impossible to absolutely define. (a) (b) Fig. 4. The GSM GMSK signal: a) power spectral density, and b) vector diagram showing the constant envelope property. EDGE With the intent of tripling the bandwidth efficiency of the......

Words: 5096 - Pages: 21

Introduction to Ofdm

...E225C – Lecture 16 OFDM Introduction EE225C Introduction to OFDM l Basic idea » Using a large number of parallel narrow-band subcarriers instead of a single wide-band carrier to transport information l Advantages » Very easy and efficient in dealing with multi-path » Robust again narrow-band interference l Disadvantages » Sensitive to frequency offset and phase noise » Peak-to-average problem reduces the power efficiency of RF amplifier at the transmitter l Adopted for various standards – DSL, 802.11a, DAB, DVB 1 Multipath can be described in two domains: time and frequency Time domain: Impulse response time time time Impulse response Frequency domain: Frequency response time time time Sinusoidal signal as input f Frequency response time Sinusoidal signal as output Modulation techniques: monocarrier vs. multicarrier Channel Channelization Guard bands N carriers Similar to FDM technique B Pulse length ~ N/B – Data are shared among several carriers and simultaneously transmitted Advantages Furthermore – Flat Fading per carrier – N long pulses – ISI is comparatively short – N short EQs needed – Poor spectral efficiency because of band guards – It is easy to exploit Frequency diversity – It allows to deploy 2D coding techniques – Dynamic signalling B Pulse length ~1/B – Data are transmited over only one carrier Drawbacks – Selective Fading – Very short pulses – ISI is compartively long – EQs are then very long –......

Words: 776 - Pages: 4

Energy Based Detection Scheme for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

... 1 2 ABSTRACT Orthogonal Frequency Division M ultiplexing (OFDM ) has been accepted as the modulation scheme of choice for the next generation high-speed wireless communication systems due to the advantages that it offers like high spectral efficiency, resistance to multipath fading and resistance to frequency selective fading. M oreover, it lends itself to simple channel equalization. Conventional single carrier systems do not provide such advantages and hence, OFDM would almost ubiquitously be used for high speed wireless data transmission. However, the main drawback of such systems over single carrier systems is that in the presence of noise, there is an increased computational complexity at the receiver end to decode the data. In this paper, a low complexity detection algorithm is proposed for OFDM systems. M aximum likelihood detection is taken as the baseline detection algorithm and the proposed algorithm is compared with M L detection algorithm. Comparison results are plotted and conclusions are drawn. Reference [4] provides an iterative detection scheme for OFDM in presence of impulsive noise while [5] proposes an impulsive noise mitigation scheme for over-sampled OFDM systems. Performance and design of impulse noise detector for OFDM systems is provided in [6]. Reference [7] proposes an MM SE detection algorithm assuming noise to have a random variance. Reference [8] deals with noise resistant OFDM for power-line communications emphasizing on narrowband......

Words: 2583 - Pages: 11

A Novel Channel Estimation Algorithm for 3gpp Lte Downlink System Using Joint Time-Frequency Two-Dimensional Iterative Wiener Filter

...A Novel Channel Estimation Algorithm for 3GPP LTE Downlink System Using Joint Time-Frequency Two-Dimensional Iterative Wiener Filter Jinfeng Hou, Jian Liu School of Communication and Information Engineering University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC) Chengdu 611731, China Email: houjinfeng@gmail.com, liuj@uestc.edu.cn Abstract—The channel estimation algorithms are employed in 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) downlink system to assist the coherent demodulation of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbols. Based on the comparison of several exiting different channel estimation algorithms, we propose a joint time-frequency two-dimensional iterative Wiener filter (IWF) channel estimation algorithm for 3GPP LTE downlink system. In this scheme, we first apply the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) algorithm based on singular value decomposition (SVD) for IWF in frequency domain, and then the values after the first filtering in frequency domain are used to achieve the second IWF in time domain. Comparing to the conventional algorithms, the channel estimation algorithm proposed by this paper brings up lower bit error rate (BER) and adds little computational complexity. I. I NTRODUCTION In December 2004, the Third Generation Partnership Program (3GPP) members started a feasibility study on the enhancement of the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) in the aim of continuing the long time frame competitiveness of the 3G Universal Mobile......

Words: 2979 - Pages: 12

Smart Grid

...the encoding scheme have a significant influence on the efficiency and the speed of the PLC service. The encoding scheme which is used in BPL is orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). This is a multi-carrier transmission technique which has been recently recognized as an excellent method for high speed data communication. The history of OFDM goes back to 1960s, but it has become popular recently since integrated circuits, which can perform the needed high speed digital operations, became economically accessible. OFDM is based on the idea of frequency division multiplexing (FDM), which is a technology that uses multiple frequencies to transmit multiple signals in parallel at the same time. However, In FDM 50% of the total spectrum is wasted due to guard bands which are needed between sub-carriers to ensure that they do not overlap. 3 OFDM is much more spectrally efficient than FDM. It reduces the required bandwidth by squeezing sub-carriers tightly together until they actually overlap with each other. This is accomplished by keeping the sub-carriers orthogonal in the complex domain so that they do not interfere with each other. The concept of OFDM is shown in figure 1.The generation of orthogonal signals is done by using an IFFT (inverse fast Fourier transform) block. Using OFDM modulation the data is injected onto power lines. The electric power transmission system basically consists of high voltage lines (greater than 40 kV) medium voltage lines (1 kV to 40......

Words: 2904 - Pages: 12

My Paper

...17, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2013 2229 Selective HARQ Transceiver Design for OFDM System Zia Muhammad, Hasan Mahmood, Awais Ahmed, and Nazar Abbas Saqib Abstract—We present a novel selective Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) based transceiver design for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. The proposed method is bandwidth efficient and has lower complexity as compared to conventional HARQ method adopted by communication standards such as long-term evolution (LTE). Our transceiver design introduces an additional retransmission layer at OFDM modulation level, which is independent of conventional HARQ methods. Instead of calculating computationally expensive soft information and applying forward error correction (FEC) on the soft information, receiver requests retransmission of information symbols corresponding to the subcarriers that have signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) below a set threshold at modulation level. We also provide criteria for selective retransmission and throughput analysis with new selective retransmission approach. We demonstrate that with limited feedback at modulation layer level, the proposed method enhances throughput of the system in all SNR regimes. The proposed selective HARQ method provides great flexibility for an application to optimize throughput based on its bit error rate (BER) requirement. Index Terms—Hybrid ARQ, partial retransmission, LDPC codes, OFDM, LTE, joint detection. I. I NTRODUCTION VER the past decade,......

Words: 3616 - Pages: 15

Performance Evaluation of Ofdm System for Different Channel and Different Modulation Techniques

...Performance Evaluation of OFDM System for Different Channel and Different Modulation Techniques Thesis Report Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering (ETE) Submitted By Foysal Bin Wadud (T-093011) Gazi Shamsul Arefeen Shams (T-093016) Supervised By Engr. Mohammad Jashim Uddin Contact Information: Foysal Bin Wadud (Mamun), Dept. of ETE, International Islamic University Chittagong, Metric No.: T093011, Email: mamunmoon19@yahoo.com Contact No.: +8801717934676 Gazi Shamsul Arefeen (Shams) Dept. of ETE, International Islamic University Chittagong, Metric No.: T093016, Email: shams.ete@gmail.com Contact No.: +8801676848247 Contact Information of Supervisor: Md. Jashim Uddin Dept. Of ETE, International Islamic University Chittagong. Contact No. +8801716-823959 Email: jashimcuet@yahoo.com Abstract The demand for high-speed mobile wireless communications is rapidly growing. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) technology promises to be a key technique for achieving the high data capacity and spectral efficiency requirements for wireless communication systems in the near future. An Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) scheme offers high spectral efficiency and better resistance to fading environments. In OFDM the data is modulated using multiple numbers of sub-carriers that are orthogonal to each other because of which the problems associated with other modulation schemes such as Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Inter Carrier......

Words: 16266 - Pages: 66

Netw 589 Discussions Week 1 to 7

...SECURE?… NETW 589 The Replacement for DSSS, OFDM Discussions 2 Week 1 All Students Posts 39 Pages Keller UNTIL RECENTLY MOST LOW-SPEED DEVICES USED FHSS AND HIGHER-SPEED DEVICES USED DSSS; TODAY ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING IS THE NEW METHOD. WHAT IS OFDM? HOW IS IT USED? WHY IS IT USED? CLASS, BEFORE WE JUMP IN INTO THE DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUES, WHAT IS MEANT BY MODULATION? WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ANALOG AND DIGITAL? WHY DID MOST TECHNOLOGIES MOVE TO DIGITAL? WHAT DRAWBACKS DID ANALOG TRANSMISSION HAVE? WHAT ARE SPREAD SPECTRUMS? HOW DO FHSS AND DSSS COMPARE?… NETW 589 DISCUSSIONS WEEK 1 TO 7 To purchase this visit following link: http://www.activitymode.com/product/netw-589-discussions-week-1-to-7/ Contact us at: SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM NETW 589 DISCUSSIONS WEEK 1 TO 7 NETW 589 Discussions Week 1-7 Wireless Communication All Students Posts 410 Pages Keller NETW 589 How Do You Use Wireless Discussions 1 Week 1 All Students Posts 39 Page Keller NO DOUBT YOU USE WIRELESS DEVICES EVERY DAY. PROVIDE SOME EXAMPLES AS TO WHAT THE DEVICE DOES, THE SIZE OF THE DEVICE, AND THE FREQUENCY THE DEVICE USES. WHAT ARE THE WIRELESS DEVICES YOU USE AT HOME? WHAT FREQUENCY DO THEY OPERATE ON? CLASS, WHAT IS ULTRA WIDE BAND? HAS ANYONE OF YOU USED IT OR IS USING IT? WHAT IS THE RANGE OF UWB? WHAT FREQUENCY DOES IT OPERATE ON ? IS IT SECURE?… NETW 589 The Replacement for DSSS, OFDM Discussions 2 Week 1 All Students......

Words: 977 - Pages: 4

Netw 589 Full Class Wireless Communication Ended Feb-2015 Keller

...Week 2 NETW 589 Quiz Week 3 NETW 589 Quiz Week 4 NETW 589 Quiz Week 5 Keller NETW 589 Quiz Week 6 Keller NETW 589 Quiz Week 7 Keller NETW 589 Week 1 DQ 1 How Do You Use Wireless NETW 589 Week 1 DQ 2 The Replacement for DSSS, OFDM NETW 589 Week 2 DQ 1 Impediments to Transmission NETW 589 Week 2 DQ 2 Antennas NETW 589 Week 3 DQ 1 Use of Bluetooth NETW 589 Week 3 DQ 2 How Secure Is a WLAN NETW 589 Week 4 DQ 1 The Last Mile NETW 589 Week 4 DQ 2 FSO NETW 589 Week 5 Case Study NETW 589 Week 5 DQ 1 Cellular Data Networks for a WAN NETW 589 Week 5 DQ 2 The use of Satellite Networks NETW 589 Week 6 DQ 1 Privacy Security and RFID NETW 589 Week 6 DQ 2 Project Discussion NETW 589 Week 7 DQ 1 Deploying Wireless Applications NETW 589 Week 7 DQ 2 Selling a Wireless Solution NETW 589 Final Exam NETW 589 Full Class Wireless Communication Ended Feb-2015 Keller Purchase here http://sellfy.com/p/geE1/ Product Description NETW 589 Entire Course / Wireless CommunicationNETW 589 Quiz Week 1 NETW 589 Quiz Week 2 NETW 589 Quiz Week 3 NETW 589 Quiz Week 4 NETW 589 Quiz Week 5 Keller NETW 589 Quiz Week 6 Keller NETW 589 Quiz Week 7 Keller NETW 589 Week 1 DQ 1 How Do You Use Wireless NETW 589 Week 1 DQ 2 The Replacement for DSSS, OFDM NETW 589 Week 2 DQ 1 Impediments to Transmission NETW 589 Week 2 DQ 2 Antennas NETW 589 Week 3 DQ 1 Use of Bluetooth NETW 589 Week 3 DQ 2 How Secure Is a WLAN NETW 589 Week 4 DQ 1 The Last Mile NETW 589 Week 4 DQ 2......

Words: 1030 - Pages: 5

Netw 589 Full Class Wireless Communication Ended Feb-2015 Keller

...Week 2 NETW 589 Quiz Week 3 NETW 589 Quiz Week 4 NETW 589 Quiz Week 5 Keller NETW 589 Quiz Week 6 Keller NETW 589 Quiz Week 7 Keller NETW 589 Week 1 DQ 1 How Do You Use Wireless NETW 589 Week 1 DQ 2 The Replacement for DSSS, OFDM NETW 589 Week 2 DQ 1 Impediments to Transmission NETW 589 Week 2 DQ 2 Antennas NETW 589 Week 3 DQ 1 Use of Bluetooth NETW 589 Week 3 DQ 2 How Secure Is a WLAN NETW 589 Week 4 DQ 1 The Last Mile NETW 589 Week 4 DQ 2 FSO NETW 589 Week 5 Case Study NETW 589 Week 5 DQ 1 Cellular Data Networks for a WAN NETW 589 Week 5 DQ 2 The use of Satellite Networks NETW 589 Week 6 DQ 1 Privacy Security and RFID NETW 589 Week 6 DQ 2 Project Discussion NETW 589 Week 7 DQ 1 Deploying Wireless Applications NETW 589 Week 7 DQ 2 Selling a Wireless Solution NETW 589 Final Exam NETW 589 Full Class Wireless Communication Ended Feb-2015 Keller Purchase here http://sellfy.com/p/geE1/ Product Description NETW 589 Entire Course / Wireless CommunicationNETW 589 Quiz Week 1 NETW 589 Quiz Week 2 NETW 589 Quiz Week 3 NETW 589 Quiz Week 4 NETW 589 Quiz Week 5 Keller NETW 589 Quiz Week 6 Keller NETW 589 Quiz Week 7 Keller NETW 589 Week 1 DQ 1 How Do You Use Wireless NETW 589 Week 1 DQ 2 The Replacement for DSSS, OFDM NETW 589 Week 2 DQ 1 Impediments to Transmission NETW 589 Week 2 DQ 2 Antennas NETW 589 Week 3 DQ 1 Use of Bluetooth NETW 589 Week 3 DQ 2 How Secure Is a WLAN NETW 589 Week 4 DQ 1 The Last Mile NETW 589 Week 4 DQ 2......

Words: 1030 - Pages: 5

Ofdm

...techniques. * Ad hoc networks and multi-hop networks. 1.4.2 Comparison between 3G and 4G According to [1] [18] [19] we have the following: Table 1.4.1 Comparisons of the basic features of 3G and 4G | 3G | 4G | Frequency Band | 1.8- 2.5 GHz | 2- 8 GHz | Bandwidth | 5-20 MHz | 5-20 MHz | Data rate | Up to 2Mbps (384 kbps WAN) | Up to 20 Mbps or more | Access | Wideband CDMA | Multi-carrier – CDMA or OFDM (TDMA) | FEC | Turbo- codes | Concatenated codes | Switching | Circuit/ Packet | Packet | Mobile top speeds | 200 kmph | 200 kmph | 1.4.3 Introduction OFDM as Main Premise of 4G In [1] [19], for the main transmission technique for 4G, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is being considered as most promising. This is because of its dexterous performance in combating multipath fading as well as Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and in the use of the available bandwidth. This scheme was first proposed by Chang in 1966 for dispersive fading channels. OFDM is very similar to the Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) technique. OFDM uses the same basic principals as FDM but can send multiple messages over a single radio channel. It is also more controlled and has improved spectral efficiency. The system’s operating principle is that the original bandwidth is divided into narrow subcarriers and these subcarriers are put into service by using Simple Fast Fourier transform. 1.5 Motivations toward the objective of the thesis ONE of the most......

Words: 15258 - Pages: 62

Account

...• DHCP Server and Client Wireless Signal Rates1 With Automatic Fallback • D-Link 108G: 108Mbps • 54Mbps • 36Mbps • 18Mbps • 11Mbps • 6Mbps • 2Mbps • 48Mbps • 24Mbps • 12Mbps • 9Mbps • 5.5Mbps • 1Mbps Security • 64/128-bit WEP • WPA —Wi-Fi Protected Access (TKIP MIC) , • WPA-PSK (Pre-Shared Key) Media Access Control CSMA/CA with ACK Wireless Frequency Range 2.4GHz to 2.462GHz Wireless Operating Range3 Indoors: Up to 328 ft (100 meters) Outdoors: Up to 1312 ft (400 meters) Modulation Technology • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) • Complementary Code Keying (CCK) 1 2 3 Receiver Sensitivity • 54Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-68dBm) • 48Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-68dBm) • 36Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-75dBm) • 24Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-79dBm) • 18Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-82dBm) • 12Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-84dBm) • 11Mbps CCK, 8% PER,-82dBm) • 9Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-87dBm) • 6Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-88dBm) • 5.5Mbps CCK, 8% PER,-85dBm) • 2Mbps QPSK, 8% PER,-86dBm) • 1Mbps BPSK, 8% PER,-89dBm) Wireless Transmit Power 15dBm ± 2dB External Antenna Type Single detachable reverse SMA LEDs • Power • WAN • LAN (10/100) • WLAN (Wireless Connection) Operating Temperature 32°F to 131°F ( 0°C to 55°C) Humidity 95% maximum (non-condensing) Power Input Ext. Power Supply DC 5V, 2.4A Safety & Emissions • FCC Dimensions • L = 7.5 inches (190.5mm) • W = 4.6 inches (116.84mm) • H = 1.375inches (35mm) Weight ~10.3 Ounces Warranty 3 Year Maximum......

Words: 780 - Pages: 4