Patho Chap 1

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Pathophysiology
Lee-Ellen C. Copstead
Key Questions
• What is pathophysiology?
• How are etiology and pathogenesis used to predict clinical manifestations and response to therapy?
• How are normal and abnormal physiologic parameters defined?
• What general factors affect the expression of disease in a particular person?
• What kinds of information about disease can be gained through understanding concepts of epidemiology?
• Review Questions and Answers
• Glossary (with audio pronunciations for selected terms)
• Animations
• Case Studies
• Key Points Review
Pathophysiology derives from the intersection of two older, related disciplines: pathology (from pathos, suffering) and physiology (from physis, nature). Pathology is the study and diagnosis of disease through examination of organs, tissues, cells, and bodily fluids. Physiology is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. Together, as pathophysiology, the term refers to the study of abnormalities in physiologic functioning of living beings.
Pathophysiology seeks to reveal physiologic responses of an organism to disruptions in its internal or external environment. Because humans exhibit considerable diversity, healthy structure and function are not precisely the same in any two individuals. However, discovering the common and expected responses to abnormalities in physiologic functioning is useful, and it allows a general prediction of clinical progression, identification of possible causes, and selection of interventions that are most likely to be helpful. Thus, pathophysiology is studied in terms of common or “classic” presentations of disorders.
Historically, descriptions of diseases were based on observations of those individuals who attracted medical attention because they exhibited…...

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