Protestant Reformation: a Prologue to Christian Civilization

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By abbasule
Words 4147
Pages 17
LIBERTY UNIVERSITY

PROTESTANT REFORMATION: A PROLOGUE TO CHRISTIAN CIVILIZATION

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO

THE FACULTY OF THE DIVISION OF RELIGIOUS STUDIES

IN CANDIDACY FOR THE DEGREE OF

MASTER OF DIVINITY IN CHAPLAINCY

BY
SULEIMAN ABBA

LYNCHBURG, VIRGINIA
MARCH 2013
Abstract

The Early Church was a minority religious movement which faced significant threats of persecution in their daily practice of faith. As a result there was no detailed structure of worship as seen in the present day Christian worship. However, worship in those days paved way for the current settings of various churches which have greatly evolved over time. Worship was characterized by several aspects such as baptism, organizing prayer meetings and gatherings, rejoicing through songs, listening to the scriptures, collection of charity and using their spiritual gifts among others. Additionally, during those early days of Christianity, Christians often met in church assemblies for the ceremonial get together meal (Lord’s Supper) or for thanksgiving and singing gatherings. This paper critically analyzes the various practices of early church such as the singing of psalms and hymns, gathering in church assemblies, vocal thanksgiving, the Lord’s Supper as well as the practice of baptism.

Table of Contents

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………i

Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………………….ii

1. Introduction..................................................................................................................................1

1.1 What is Worship?...........................................................................................................1

1.2 Early Christian Worship………………………………………………………………2

2. Baptism…………………………………………………………………………………………3

3.…...

Similar Documents

Protestant Reformation Analysis

...Although Martin Luther and the King of England, Henry VIII, were very different individuals with distinct beliefs, they were both able to create significant changes during the Reformation. Both of them focused on the doings of the church, whether it was because of political or religious doctrines. The abuse and the desire of power lead to many disputes among the people of Europe and eventually became a national phenomenon. They both brought religious change to the country of Europe however; Luther was disgusted at the corruption of the church while on the other hand Henry created religious controversy in his desperation to have a male heir. Martin Luther did not fully agree with certain aspects of the church therefore he established his own beliefs and managed to gain many followers during the Reformation. One of Luther’s most important arguments was his opposition to the selling of indulgences, when the Pope was basically making money off of sacred artifacts. It disgusted Luther to see how many people believed that a piece of a paper could actually help you achieve salvation and so he created the Ninety-Five Theses. He expressed the idea that salvation could be achieved by faith alone in an attempt to stop people from buying the false hope of indulgences. He caused major upheaval when he refused to recant his statements in the Diet of Worms, creating tension between the people who wanted him dead for opposing the church and those who praised him and shared his beliefs....

Words: 831 - Pages: 4

The Clash of Civilizations?

...The Clash of Civilizations? by Samuel P. Huntington (SAMUEL P. HUNTINGTON is the Eaton Professor of the Science of Government and Director of the John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University. This article is the product of the Olin Institute's project on "The Changing Security Environment and American National Interests”. THE NEXT PATTERN OF CONFLICT WORLD POLITICS IS entering a new phase, and intellectuals have not hesitated to proliferate visions of what it will be -- the end of history, the return of traditional rivalries between nation states, and the decline of the nation state from the conflicting pulls of tribalism and globalism, among others. Each of these visions catches aspects of the emerging reality. Yet they all miss a crucial, indeed a central, aspect of what global politics is likely to be in the coming years. It is my hypothesis that the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. Nation states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. The clash of civilizations will be the battle lines of the future. Conflict between civilizations will be the latest phase of the evolution of conflict in the modern world. For a century and a half after the emergence of the...

Words: 9742 - Pages: 39

Religion Reformation

...A Brief Talk on Protestant Reformation It was on the night before All Saints’ Day on which one of the largest crowds of the year would gather to see the relics which was rebuilt with the money came from the sale of indulgence in Wittenberg, Germany, Martin Luther posted on the door of the castle church his Ninety-five Theses, the Protestant Reformation began. That time was to some extent influenced by the Renaissance. On the one hand, the humanist called for a return to the study of classics and accurate texts, people applied recovery techniques to the study of the authorities and texts of the Church, prospering the printing industry by the large demand and flourishing the intellectual movement known as Christian humanism. A growing sense of individual accomplishment let people emphasize on good works, the obsession with original sin and salvation among the people imposed by the church made indulgence so popular. These factors spread the religion more widely and consolidated the status of Catholic Church. On the other hand, through the study of classical texts, people intended to believe the equality of everyone before God and questioned the use of indulgences which the church didn’t want to see. With the help of printing press, the new idea of church dispersed quickly. Besides, the princes wanted to centralized more power and money for the development of the social economy. The Church itself was always involved in the corruption scandal such as simony, nepotism,......

Words: 1072 - Pages: 5

How the Renaissance, Reformation and Nation-States Contributed to the Concept of European Identity?

...MERVE DENİZ 13735009 How the Renaissance, Reformation and Nation-States Contributed to the Concept of European Identity? 1. Introduction I would like to study the connection between the material culture that sprang to life after the Reformation in Europe and the urbanization that came with the Industrial Revolution in order to see if or if not it had any effects on constituting the European Identity. Starting first with analyzing the material culture of which the Italian Renaissance movement and then the Reformation planted its seeds, I want to follow the dynamics of social changes that slowly transformed the life in Europe from peasantry with only the Christian identity to nation-state citizenship with a European notion. In order to understand how the Industrial Revolution that started in the 19th century and spreaded across the continent affected Europe, it is first required to analyze the changes in the mentality of people that lived in Europe and the transformation the societies went through as a result of the Protestant Reformation that took place in the 16th century. Although the Industrial Revolution had basically been a drastic economic upheaval, it cannot be considered without its social causes and social results. How the humanist mindset that came up with the Renaissance had affected the daily lives of people and how this effect helped people to search for improvements in working and production have been widely......

Words: 1984 - Pages: 8

Reformation

...Professor Gardenour Interpretive Essay The Reformation During the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church was full of corruption and blasphemy that was criticized by many in Europe. One of the many acts of corruption that occurred during this time was the selling of indulgences by the church which basically freed people of sins and bought salvation after death. Although many people bought these indulgences and followed the words of the Pope, Martin Luther was not one of these people. Martin Luther was a very dedicated and educated monk who taught at the University of Wittenberg. His deep concern for the church led him to write the Ninety- Five These which simply stated ninety- five points of debate against the actions of the Catholic Church at the time. He posted these arguments in Latin on the Castle Church in Wittenberg on October 31, 1517 with the intention of keeping the issues within the hands of the church officials and holding a lively debate with his colleagues. Martin Luther had no idea at the time that this piece of writing would end up being the catalyst to the entire Protestant Reformation. This is due to the fact that although the Ninety- Five These is written about indulgencies, it provides overall commentary about the true fairness and power of the church along with what should be done by the church. One of the main points made within the Ninety- Five These is the worthlessness of indulgencies. Indulgencies promised people salvation and forgiveness of sin if......

Words: 1122 - Pages: 5

Protestant Reformation

...PAPER 1 (PROTESTANT REFORMATION) DOUGLAS HOLLOWAY STUDENT ID# 23766838 CHHI 302_DO5_201340 FALL 2013 DR. KEITH GOAD LIBERTY UNIVERSITY NOVEMBER 05, 2013 As a result of increased corruption in the Catholic Church, a significant number of priests in the 16th century tried to transform Christianity back to its previous Biblical basis and simplicity. Initially, priests channeled much of their efforts in reforming the church, but they discovered that it was very challenging, and the only viable solution was to split completely from the Catholic Church. There were four movements as a result of the reformation events. They include the Anglicans, Lutherans, Reformed Tradition (Calvin), and the Anabaptists. Key figures in the Protestants or protesters included John Knox, John Calvin, Zwingli, and Martin Luther. More doctrinal distinctions became obvious, and the previously integrated Christianity split into numerous warring groups. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of individuals were murdered as a result of Christian religion. In the current world, Protestants and Catholics in the spirit of ecumenism regard themselves as “brothers in Christ”. Martin Luther was in charge of Lutheranism and Anglicanism, Ulrich Zwingli for Reformed Churches, and Anabaptist and John Calvin broke with the beliefs of the Lutherans. The prominent figures in the reformed movement are discussed in details in this paper. Martin Luther (1843-1546) Martin Luther, a German......

Words: 1698 - Pages: 7

A Reformation Reader

...Introduction A reformation reader is a book edited by Denis Janz in which he brings lesser known documents and figures to luminosity. Janz makes the context reformation clearer by including the pre-Reformation Catholic sentiments authors and discussing about the Counter Reformation and the Catholic Council of Trent. He brings up different scholarly arguments on how to interpret the Reformation. Janz tries us much as he can to stay neutral and give explanations on what the questions are. He therefore, provides documents that hold the ability to place challenges on both viewpoints and supports a study of the texts themselves. In his book, Janz includes opinions explaining the significance of both Martin Luther and John Calvin. This paper is therefore, intended on highlighting the significance of these two individuals and contrasting the opinions contained in writings of each. The significance of Martin Luther Many people wonder why there exists a great fuss over martin Luther and the Protestant reformation. They also don’t understand how and why this German monk turned out to be a lightning rod for change in religion and community in Europe during the Renaissance. Many people also do not comprehend the significance of the circumstances and the importance Luther and his persuade on the Reformation and how it affects them in the present days. Back in 1520 Luther was thought of as an insightful church leader and other thought of him as an ecclesiastical terrorist. His......

Words: 2257 - Pages: 10

Protestant and Catholic Reformation

...Protestant & Catholic Reformation On October 31st 1517, Martin Luther started the beginning of the Protestant Revolution by posting his 95 theses at Wittenberg’s castle. These 95 theses argued on the power and efficacy of indulgences and explained the fundamentals of justification by faith. Thus opened the eyes of the people who had begun to question centuries of Catholic beliefs. Luther and his supporters believed that the Church had been corrupted by power and wealth and therefore it needed to change for the better, however, the Church held strong to their own beliefs. With the constant attacks from the Protestants they fought back in what is known as the Counter-Reformation, also known as the Catholic Reformation. The goal of both reformations was to change the same basic cores of the Church that had been lost. The Protestant Revolution depicts the church as ruled in a totalitarian and authoritarian way by corrupt popes. They viewed the selling of indulgences, which had been initially given to people who went on the crusades, as a commercial exploitation to raise funds for non-religious purposes. The Catholic Church on the other hand, viewed this practice as a way of salvation for the community of Christian believers. Most of the funds raised by the selling of indulgences were used to build St. Peter’s Church. Luther’s followers and other Protestants believed that this was not a religious cause but a way to please the pope’s desire to show his superiority. Luther’s......

Words: 580 - Pages: 3

Protestant Reformation

...Social and Political Consequences of the Protestant Reformation The Catholic Church had become increasingly corrupt due to the selling of indulgences, clerical ignorance, pluralism and absenteeism. In desperate need of improvement and restructuring, a man named Martin Luther began a religious reformation. Luther was opposed to the selling of indulgences, believed the key to salvation was by faith alone and that the scriptures of the bible held all authority. The ideals of Martin Luther, radically different from those of the Roman Catholic Church, created a religious reform disturbing politics throughout Europe and changing society. Numerous political effects occurred because of the Protestant Reformation, which consequently happened because of Luther’s reforms. The area that was affected most by the Reformation was Germany. Luther was favored there and he gained support by appealing to German patriotism and evoking a national pride and feeling that influenced many princes. Luther stated that the only way Reformation could come about was by the princes to abolish papal power. This happened when Charles V excommunicated Luther and the German princes did not enforce the banning of Luther’s teachings. Charles V was also to blame for the disintegration of imperial authority because during his reign, he never took an interest in the constitutional problems of Germany that were left over from the Middle Ages. Germans princes used the religious issues as a way to extend political...

Words: 589 - Pages: 3

The Protestant Reformation

...The Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation was the 16th century religious and political revolution that disintegrated the Catholic Church. This reformation would define Europe in the modern era. Martin Luther, John Calvin and Henry VIII contested the Church’s power and its faculty to divide Christian religion. On October 31, 1517 Martin Luther published his “95 Theses” which led to start the Protestant Reformation, in which it stated Luther’s terms of his protest against the Catholic Church. Martin Luther argued that Jesus died on the cross for our salvation; therefore, there was no need for lavish cathedrals and offerings that the Catholic Church was accustomed to. Also, he was opposed to the practice of the church collecting indulgences in order to shorten ones stay in purgatory. These indulgences were said to pave the way to heaven for any sinner. In Martin Luther’s 95 Theses the mentions the following: “Those who believe that, through letters of pardon, they are made sure of their own salvation will be eternally dammed along with their teacher”. After the Church’s unsuccessful rebuttal, they ended up excommunicating Luther in 1521. Luther went on to translating the bible into vernacular German, which up to this point was only in Latin and only available to priests who were they only ones who read and interpreted the bible to the masses. Luther’s translation was not word for word but rather sense for sense, which would help ordinary people, read the......

Words: 725 - Pages: 3

Reformation of Catholic Church

...What was going on in the church before the reformation era took place: Many things were happening behind peoples back one being abuses of indulgence. Some priest and bishops were giving indulgences to people for a price of money. Some brothers and sister claimed that they were authorised by the pope to forgive all sins. They took the money from people who believed in them and respected them, they promised them they would go the heaven and have happiness in their lives. An indulgence is the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due, in God's justice, to sin that has been forgiven, which remission is granted by the Church in the exercise of the power of the keys, through the application of the superabundant merits of Christ and of the saints, and for some just and reasonable motive. The practice ended up becoming a concoction of evil and corruption; it was almost like they were buying their way into heaven. The years leading up to the reformation were indulgences very popular Martin Luther’s ideas of the church and what he taught: When martin Luther found out that pope Leo x and the archbishop of Mainz were selling indulgences for the construction of St Peters basilica in Rome he objected. He was against fooling people that they could buy their way out of sins without any faith what so ever. These people would believe that they were going to Heaven when in fact they would go to Hell. How could they be repentant when self-loathing and self-disgust was......

Words: 733 - Pages: 3

World Civilization Study Guide

...Juris civilis- the “body of civil law,” it is composed of the code, the digest and the institutes. Dioceses- geographic administrative districts of the church, each under the authority of a bishop and centered around cathedral Arianism- a theological belief, originating with Arius, a priest from Alexandria that denied that Christ was co-eternal with god the father. Popes- heads of the Roman Catholic Church, who became political as well as religious authorities. The period of a pope’s term in office is called a “pontificate.” Orthodox church- another name for the eastern Christian church over which emperors continued to have power Iconoclastic controversy-the conflict over the veneration of religious images in the Byzantine Empire Sacraments- certain rituals of the church believed to act as a conduit of god’s grace, such as the Eucharist and baptism Penance- ritual in which Christians asked a priest for forgiveness for sins, and the priest set certain actions to atone for the sins Saints-people who were venerated for having lived or died in a way that was spiritually heroic or noteworthy Wergild-compensatory payment for death or injury set in many barbarian law codes. Merovingian- a dynasty founded in 481 by the Frankish chieftain Clovis in what is now France. Merovingian derives from Merovech, the name of the semi legendary leader from who Clovis claimed decent Carolingians- a dynasty of rulers that took over the Frankish kingdom from the......

Words: 1755 - Pages: 8

Protestant Reformation

...During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the protestant reformation jumpstarted a trend that would challenge the order of the Christian faith and increase the sense of responsibility in true believers. During this period those blessed with wealth had clergy and others connected with the church in their pocket. Sins were forgiven at the right price as many bought their way into gods favor. However those honest and true worshipers such as Martin Luther and John Calvin could see through this charade and shined light on an obvious but hidden truth through their writings, namely Luther, Freedom of a Christian, 95 Theses and Calvin’s selections from Articles Concerning Predestination and On the Necessity of Reforming the Church. The bible is a written guide for a Christ fearing man to follow, however society had forgotten the rules and regulations that is their foundation and it is up to them to restore order. Understandably this ruffled a few feathers as those that identified with abusing their power could see what a threat these men imposed by simply saying to move forward we must look back to simpler life. Martin Luther was a firm believer in his faith and did not take lightly to those who claimed to be Christians but did not understand what it is to actually be a Christian. Luther spells out what faith is by saying, “… people have considered Christian faith an easy thing, and not a few have given it a place among the virtues. They do this because they have not......

Words: 1484 - Pages: 6

Reformation

...been possible without the Reformation – How did these ideas manifest themselves?” In 1557, a German priest by the name of Martin Luther posted his 95 theses on a church in the University town of Wittenberg. These 95 Theses accused the Church of worldliness and corruption. It was his attempt to rid the Church of the abusing of its power, with such things as the sale of indulgences. The Church would offer indulgences in the matter of forgiveness of all your sins, brother’s sins, mother sins for a price. This price would go to building the likes of the Roman Cathedral. Luther argued that the Lord Jesus Christ, by coming on Earth, by suffering and dying, had already paid for man’s salvation forever. God’s Mercy could not be bought. He insisted that all believers should read the Bible for themselves, rather than relying on priest to interpret it for them. A pastor by the name of John Calvin, also touched based on this subject but with his own little twist. He believed that everything was predestined. Therefore God already knew your sins, God already knew who the Kings and Queens would be. What you would get up and do tomorrow morning, was already decided by God. So how could anyone pay for forgiveness of sins that were already bestowed upon them? With the Reformation, European citizens started having different religious beliefs. The Catholic Church no longer monopolized the country. New churches began to spring up; Lutheran Churches, Protestant Churches. The......

Words: 765 - Pages: 4

The Contribution of Thomas Cranmer to the English Reformation

...The English Reformation has a history of its own; a series of numerous events that brought about a reshaping of the Church, a paradigm shift in peoples understanding of ministry, as well as some other critical theological beliefs. And so it is also widely considered as the turning point for Christianity in England because it brought along reformed ideas, thoughts and ways of doing things, not only in the church, but also in England. A new dawn had come. The English Reformation is also remembered for the political ambitions and struggles which juxtaposed side by side with the theological and spiritual issues of the time. There were hot debate, burnings at the stake, organized coups, charges of treason and heresy and divorces which polluted the air. The history of the English Reformation certainly does not make for bedtime stories, nevertheless it is what it is and Christianity in England consequently took a dramatic turn of events. When we think of the Anglican Communion we think of the Book of Common Prayer and when turn the pages we can do nothing else but think of the scholar, priest and revolutionist who created it, Thomas Cranmer. Out of the smoke of the reformation arose the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556). Cranmer, amongst many is one of the iconic figures who helped influence Christian church history, and is often referred to as the ‘Architect of Church of England.’ In particular, Cranmer’s most noted contribution came to the surface during the...

Words: 2193 - Pages: 9