Psychoanalytic Theories

In: Philosophy and Psychology

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Pioneers of psychology, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William James were influential thinkers, early founders, and significant contributors to the modern science of psychology (Goodwin, 2008). Although their theories were at least as distinct as the four men were, they were passionate about their endeavors, and never settled with conclusion - their entire lives were spent in earnest search for better understanding of the human psychological frailties and their betterment (Goodwin, 2008). Although continued debate ensues, no one doubts their contributions remain at the forefront of psychological thought (Goodwin, 2008). During a time when the young science of psychology sought to address and understand people's internal changes and struggles, the pioneering spirit of these men took form in their perspectives and approaches. They have since become a long-standing institution that continues to seek answers and applications with which to ease the struggles of the human condition.

Varied Positions on Human Psychological Functioning

Carl Jung

Carl Jung separated from Sigmund Freud to develop his own human personality theory based on his belief that the human psyche has an undeniable religious nature (Malamud, 1923). He thought dreams contained significant insight into people's psyche and theorized that for people to become whole, they must be taught to integrate the unconscious with the conscious mind in a process he called individuation (Malamud, 1923). This process was at the center of his analytical psychology (Malamud, 1923). Jung considered people's social aspect when he said, “The human psyche cannot function without a culture, and no individual is possible without society" (Richards, 2008, p.7).

Alfred Adler

Adler thought that the basic psychological element of neurosis was a sense of inferiority and that individuals suffering with…...

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