Review on the Gorbachev Phenomenon: a Historical Interpretation by Moshe Lewin

In: Historical Events

Submitted By svoke
Words 731
Pages 3
Tyler Svoke
9/16/2012
Reading Reaction 1
The Gorbachev Phenomenon: A historical interpretation By Moshe Lewin Moshe Lewin, a historian of the Soviet Union, wrote The Gorbachev Phenomenon. The Gorbachev Phenomenon is often referred to as the period between the late 1910’s to present (1988 when the book was published) that corresponds to the growth of the Soviet Union from an undeveloped agricultural society to an urban industrial power. Moshe focuses on social changes and the impacts that occur therein affecting the population’s demographics. Russia entered into World War One in 1914 with largest military force on the face of the earth. However, size did not seem to matter because of the poor weapons technology and incompetent leadership. Russia met this feat with failure, losing 1.7 million soldiers and leaving 3.9 million more wounded. Russia and its leadership were in shambles, and the Tsar Nicholas II began to lose strength in his reputation. In 1917 Russia was an economically backwards country; there was a promising yet feeble parliament and uneasy peasant workers. The main reason for change in Russia came with the beginnings of the Soviet Union through riots and demonstrations in Petrograd, later to be known as St. Petersburg. On the 15th of March the Tsar, Nicholas II, abdicated his position. This fall of the Tsar, gave rise to the idea of socialism and the idea of a world revolution. As contemporary Russia was forming, the people began to change. The population became more culturally diverse and well educated, which was a spark for the government to reform. With the increasing education and urbanization of the population came desires and aspirations which the government was forced to provide outlets to appease the general will. Due to the affect of western observers have had on the view of the Soviet system there has been a consensus that Soviet…...

Similar Documents

Gorbachev

...The Life of Mikhail Gorbachev Abstract Mikhail Gorbachev was a Soviet politician. He was the general secretary of the Communist Party from 1985-1991 and the president of the Soviet Union from 1990-1991. For most of his life he was proponent on communist ideals, who learned these views at an early age from his grandfather. Gorbachev would later understand in order to strengthen the Soviet Union; he would need to democratize the country’s political system. He would see lead the end of Soviet communism and the end of the Soviet Union’s postwar domination of Eastern Europe. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev was born on March 2, 1931 in Privolye, Stavropol kray, Russia. Gorbachev was born of Russian peasant in the Straropol territory (kray). At a vey young age, fifteen, he joined the Komsomol (Young Communist League) and worked on a state farm until his early twenties. He was a very promising member of the Komsomol and entered law school at Moscow State University. During his time at Moscow State he became a member of the Communist Party. In 1955 he graduated with his law degree and held various important post in the Komsomol and regular party organizations in Stavropol, where he became the first secretary of the regional party committee in 1970. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012) Mikhail Gorbachev’s ideals were molded at a very young age. Gorbachev’s grandfather, Pantelei Yefimovich Gopkalo, was a devoted member of the Communist Party. In 1937 Gopkalo was arrested by the...

Words: 1219 - Pages: 5

Interpretation

...Interpretation is an important component as a means of influencing or even changing environmental attitudes and/or behaviour of visitors to protected areas. The two important components are communicating ideas and enriching visitor experiences. This essay will define interpretation and discuss the effectiveness of interpretation as a means of influencing or even changing environmental attitudes and/or behaviour of visitors to protected areas and evaluate the roles of tourism and environmental agencies in managing & controlling the impacts of tourism in protected areas. For the purpose of this research more visitor-focused definition will be used. Definition of Interpretation There are two ways to describe interpretation. The first would be listing the forms of interpretation. For example: information centre, guide walk and tour, guidebook, brochures and signs or pamphlets that provide information of the protected areas The example given above could be suggested that interpretation incorporates all the various ways in which organizer seek to communicate with their visitors. It is also sometimes refer to as visitors’ education. Recently interpretation has been use as a recognized element of other types of attraction such as theme parks. The increase usage of interpretive activities reflects growing competition between attractions and increasing expectations from visitors. (Harris, 2005) Given the wide range of places where interpretation is used, it is not surprising to...

Words: 2173 - Pages: 9

Review Policy

...Indigenous Policy Journal Vol. XX, No. 3 (Fall 2009) Book Review Essay Reviewed texts: The Politics of Minor Concerns: American Indian Policy and Congressional Dynamics, by Charles Turner. University Press of America, 2005. Taking Charge: Native American Self-Determination and Federal Indian Policy, 1975-1993. George Pierre Castile. University of Arizona Press, 2006. Why has there been so little social science research trying to explain recent changes in Federal Indian policy, particularly given the dramatic shifts of the last 40 years? Since 1970 the previous policy of termination gave way to an evolving selfdetermination policy, a dramatically expanded role for tribal governments, and the emergence of large scale Indian gaming. Even with these striking changes - and the expansion of Indian affairs as a policy area – there have been only a handful of social science analyses of the Indian policy domain (most notably Gross 1989). Much recent scholarship in the area has been primarily descriptive or interpretive (Castile 1992, Bee 1992), with research commonly driven by area expertise rather than guided by policy related theory. In his nuanced and theoretically-driven account, Charles Turner argues that Indian policy, like many other areas, is a "minor concern" to both policymakers and policy analysts. As such, Indian policy often doesn't fit the conditions or provide the variables featured by main theoretical approaches to explaining policy outcomes more generally.......

Words: 2778 - Pages: 12

External Aids for Interpretation

...Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University SYNOPSIS Interpretation of Statutes “External Aid for Interpretation: Need and Utility” Submitted To- Submitted by- Ms. Samreen Hussain Utkarsh Kumar (Teaching Associate, Dr. RMLNLU) 5th Semester B.A. LL.B. (Hons.) Roll No. - 145 Title: External Aid for Interpretation: Need and Utility Introduction: The object of interpretation of statutes is to determine the intention of the legislature conveyed expressly or impliedly in the language used. There are lot of rules and doctrines that have been evolved by the jurists for the purposes of determining the intention of the legislature. One of the rules and tools is the “external aid”. External aids are not part of the statute, unlike the internal aids. The court can consider recourse outside the Act such as historical settings, objects and reasons, bills, debates, text books, dictionaries etc. Recourse to external aid is justified only to well-recognized limits Objective: Researcher has two-fold objectives; the first being to present a conclusion that if there is actually any need of the external aid as a tool of interpretation, since there already exist a lot of other rules for this purpose? The second being that how the external aid has been used so far for the purposes of interpretation and if there is any scope for its better utilisation? Scope: The Project will be expanded so as so to cover almost every aspect related to the project topic. After the......

Words: 443 - Pages: 2

Interpretation

...el contenido, Ensayar y grabar. 7.- ¿Cómo las nuevas tecnologías influyen en el trabajo del intérprete? La rápida evolución de las nuevas tecnologías digitales no ha pasado por alto el sector de las Conferencias. Cada vez más, los organizadores de congresos desean aprovechar estas tecnologías y, en no pocas ocasiones, combinadas con un sistema de interpretación simultánea. 1. What is the interpretation of a language? The interpretation of language or interpretation is simply an activity of linguistic mediation is to transmit a speech orally or in sign language, giving rise to an equivalent speech in a language, either oral or a type of sign language. 2. What is an interpreter? Interpreter is called to the person doing the interpretation. His role is to convey the message of the original speech, taking into consideration various aspects such as the register used, the information implicit in the message and emotions. 3. What is the difference between interpretation and translation? The translations consist in express in another language what is written, while interpretation is the translation of messages transmitted orally. The difference, therefore, lies in the way of communicating the message. 4. What is oratory? Public speaking is a genre of literature that is formed by the speech, sermon, dissertation, etc. . Oratory is the art of public speaking informing about a particular topic, entertaining and stirring up. Your goal is to persuade your arguments to......

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Kurt Lewin

...outlined by Lewin and his research. His work has been discounted by scholars as it is deemed to be outdated and not applicable to the current world. The paper specifically looks at certain ways in which Lewin’s principles do still apply and how the Force-Field Theory is still a foundational value throughout much of the business world whether directly or through an evolutionary process. It is with this in mind that the paper is created and analyzes real world cases where this process has been executed to successfully help firms and also where it has been abandoned with consequences for other businesses. The creation and implementation of the main focus principles of Lewin’s Force-Field Theory is explained in depth and demonstrates how firms in the present can learn foundational and evolved theories from the work that Lewin executed in the 1900s for success in the present and future of firms across different platforms of business segmentation. An Analysis of Lewin’s Force-Field Theory of Change During his life, Kurt Lewin analyzed change before his eyes, not just in his philosophical and psychological seminars and studies. Kurt Lewin was born in 1890 in Prussia (present day Poland) to a fairly middle class environment. Lewin went on to receive a Ph.D. from the University of Berlin after serving in the First World War. Dr. Lewin immigrated to America as World War II erupted and brought with him his knowledge and research that foundationally expanded social psychology. Lewin......

Words: 7590 - Pages: 31

Interpretation of Dreams

...The Interpretation of Dreams Sigmund Freud (1900) PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION Wheras there was a space of nine years between the first and second editions of this book, the need of a third edition was apparent when little more than a year had elapsed. I ought to be gratified by this change; but if I was unwilling previously to attribute the neglect of my work to its small value, I cannot take the interest which is now making its appearance as proof of its quality. The advance of scientific knowledge has not left The Interpretation of Dreams untouched. When I wrote this book in 1899 there was as yet no "sexual theory," and the analysis of the more complicated forms of the psychoneuroses was still in its infancy. The interpretation of dreams was intended as an expedient to facilitate the psychological analysis of the neuroses; but since then a profounder understanding of the neuroses has contributed towards the comprehension of the dream. The doctrine of dream-interpretation itself has evolved in a direction which was insufficiently emphasized in the first edition of this book. From my own experience, and the works of Stekel and other writers, [1] I have since learned to appreciate more accurately the significance of symbolism in dreams (or rather, in unconscious thought). In the course of years, a mass of data has accumulated which demands consideration. I have endeavored to deal with these innovations by interpolations in the text and footnotes. If these additions do...

Words: 226702 - Pages: 907

Lewin

...TABLE OF CONTENTS I.INTRODUCTION a) Organisational Change –an overview b) Kurt Lewin and his theories of change c) General Motors International 2. APPRAISAL OF KURT LEWIN’S 3- STEP MODEL (Manufacturing change at General Motors as a case study) 3. CRITIQUES OF THE MODEL 4. CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION In a dynamic world of increasing technology, competition, power relations and managerial opportunism, investment in Research and Development (R&D) by organisations and fluctuations in consumer demand, a complex phenomenon such as change is imperative. Change can be defined as the art of altering the current state of an entity from its present state to another while organisational change is the transformation process of taken up by an organisation in order to move from its existing level to a strategically proposed level by taking up new ideas and a different approach to its operational practices and procedures (Beckhard and Harris, 1987. cited by: Andriopoulos and Dawson, 2009). In analysing the various categories of change, research works have identified a number of traits used to classify the various levels and sorts of change. These include substance of change, scale and scope of change, timeframe of change.(Dawson and Adriopoulus,2009). Grundy (1993) also stated that three varieties of change has set a basis for how managers view change as a homogenous concept and coined them as Discontinuous, Smooth incremental and Bumpy incremental......

Words: 300 - Pages: 2

Interpretation

..."Living Like Weasels" is a journey into the way human beings might live contrasted with the thoughts of how weasels live. In this beautifully written essay, Dillard describes her chance encounter with an ordinary weasel and how it helped her receive understanding into the difference between the way human beings live their lives and the way wild animals go about theirs. She does this by offering up vivid descriptions and images concerning her quick, but thought provoking run in with the reclusive weasel. Dillard is attempting to show us that we can discover a lot about the true way to live by observing nature's other creations. Yet, at the same time telling us that the way we live is totally up to us, which leads me to my personal interpretation. One could argue humans that lived during the Neanderthal period were similar to that of a weasel. Throughout time the mental capacity of the human has grown to be far more complex and sophisticated than earlier times. With that being said the weasel as we know acts off of pure instinct, whereas the human mind needs to process and articulate each move we make. People often search a definite answer on how to live their lives, as if there is a road map or instructions that will lead you to resolution. Actually, the truth is we, humans, are blessed with an ability that separates us from any other creature; the capacity to intelligently choose to live as we please, instead of how we were created to. I believe that in earlier......

Words: 1392 - Pages: 6

The Mummy Historical Movie Review

...special effects too. Overall, I found the movie very entertaining and enjoyable and I loved almost every minute of it. Although the movie was very entertaining, l did find some historical inaccuracies in it. I believe the movie could have been made much better if some of these inaccuracies were fixed. This review will deal with historical inaccuracies that focus on the characters of the movie, the values and beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians, the geographical locations and architectures shown in the movie. The Mummy tells the story about a priest named Imhotep, who had an affair with the Pharaoh’s mistress and killed the Pharaoh, and as punishment for his deeds he was mummified alive and cursed for all eternity in Hamunaptra, the city of the dead. Thousands of years pass, and in the 1920’s a soldier of the French Foreign Legion named Rick O’Connell meets a librarian and aspiring Egyptologist named Evelyn, and joins her and her brother on a quest to find Hamunaptra, a lost Ancient Egyptian city which is said to have numerous amounts of hidden treasure. Instead of finding treasure though, they accidently reawaken the mummy of Imhotep, who if brought back to life, will “arise a walking disease”, unleash the ten plagues of Egypt, become invincible, and cause mass destruction. First, I will highlight the historical inaccuracies of the characters shown in this movie. The main villain in The Mummy is Imhotep. In the beginning of the movie, Imhotep is shown to be the High Priest......

Words: 1740 - Pages: 7

‘with Reference to These Extracts and Your Understanding of the Historical Context, Which of These Two Extracts Provides the More Convincing Interpretation of the Main Contributors to Russia’s Economic Modernisation?’

...‘With reference to these extracts and your understanding of the historical context, which of these two extracts provides the more convincing interpretation of the main contributors to Russia’s economic modernisation?’ Firstly, Extract A provides the interpretation that the emancipation of the serfs was the primary contributor Russia’s economic modernisation. This is evident when Falkus states ‘the emancipation of the serfs in 1861 removed a considerable barrier to industrial growth’. The extract states this as it goes on to say ‘serfdom was clearly incompatible with the requirements of an industrialising society’. This is supported by the facts that before emancipation, serfs were not allowed to leave their land and had to work for their Mir. Largely uneducated, there was no sense of prosperity within the serf’s population thus industrial modernisation could not occur. However, after emancipation, serfs were allowed to leave their land and go to prosperous environments such as cities (Moscow and St Petersburg), therefore industrialisation could thrive as now serfs believe there is opportunity for their lives to improve and not stay stagnant. On the other hand, although serfs could move from their land, redemption payments had to be paid. Thus any money earned from moving to cities and working in factories were largely deducted via these payments. This would imply that there was in fact no prosperous attitude as the emancipated serfs were just working to pay off debts and......

Words: 936 - Pages: 4

How and to What Extent Did War and Violence Contribute to the Definition of Chivalry as Both an Historical and Social Phenomenon?

...How and to what extent did war and violence contribute to the definition of chivalry as both an historical and social phenomenon? It is largely acknowledged by historians that, while it is difficult to be definitive in the meaning of chivalry-with Maurice Keen believing it to be a ‘word elusive of definition’- it came to denote the culture of a martial estate which ‘regarded war as its hereditary profession’. Thus, it could be considered that the violence of war had large implications on what people began to perceive to be chivalry. Additionally, the focus on violence- such as the participating in tournaments and jousts- further emphasises the close link between carrying out violent acts and the idea that a knight was being chivalrous. However, there were alternative influences, such as literature written in the period, which presented people with a chivalric ideal that they may then have come to define it by and thus strive towards. Similarly, religion may be seen to have influenced what came to be viewed as chivalry as through ecclesiastical critiques of the noble class, derived the knights desire to adopt what the Church deemed proper Christian conduct. Ultimately it is likely that it was not simply war and violence, but a combination of these influences which culminated in the definition of what people of the period perceived to be chivalry. It is evident that war and violence were seen as intrinsic elements of chivalry. The idea that chivalry was synonymous with......

Words: 1916 - Pages: 8

Lewins and Iowa Model

...must be ready to present to the followers all the objectives for the change and the reason must be genuine. A committee may be formed to research on the way the change will be executed. The outcome of the committee findings will be presented to others, so in a way the idea is not going to sound as if it is it from the leader only or that the leader is imposing on the followers. Two models of change will be discussed in this paper: they are Lewin’s model of change and IOWA model. Lewin’s model of change explained the stages of change process using the changing of ice block. His model was described using these terms unfreezing which is the (comfort zone), change which is the (discomfort zone) and refreezing which is the (new comfort zone) (Lewin, 1951). The leader must know why change is necessary and motivation for change must be generated before change can occur. The correlation is that if you don’t like the shape of ice and would like to change the shape, you first melt or unfreeze it to make it amenable, then shape into what you want, before you solidify it or refreeze it to get the new shape. The leader must have a compelling reason for a change; he or she must have reason why the existing way of doing thing cannot continue. The leader must be ready to bring to the attention of team members things such as declining figures if available, poor financial results, or surveys from customers that are dissatisfied with the way they were treated or how care was delivered to......

Words: 1430 - Pages: 6

Lewins Model of Organisational Change

...name is disguised. 02-Cawsey.qxd 5/23/2007 10:59 AM Page 38 38——TOOLKIT FOR ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE (Continued) This third room was made up. It was “more tired” than the previous rooms, but it was clean and we were delighted to find a spot to sleep. In the middle of the night, as is the norm in many places, the invoice was delivered to our room. To our surprise, a 72 £ charge was added to the price of the room for a “room change.” Of course, early the next morning, I queued up to discuss this charge. The same reception person was still on duty. He motioned me forward and then immediately left to open up all the computer stations in the reception area. He had a tendency to not make eye contact. This may have been a cultural phenomenon, or it may have been his dismay at having to deal with me again. I cannot say. I showed him the invoice. He said, “Oh, there will be no charge for that room.” I said that I was concerned as the invoice did show the charge. He said, “It is taken care of.” I said, “Regardless, I would like something to prove that there will not be another charge to my credit card.” After one further exchange and insistence on my part, he removed the charge from my invoice. My wife and I had a pleasant breakfast and appreciated it being complimentary. We thought that you would want to know of our experience. Customer service is a critical part of the hospitality industry, and I am certain that ATMI would wish feedback on experiences such as these. I am......

Words: 8797 - Pages: 36

Ufos Phenomenon

...then, many UFO sightings have been reported worldwide. Yet, almost all of them end up being IFOs – Identified Flying Objects, as bright planets or stars, aircraft, balloons, flares, peculiar clouds, meteors, and satellites. The remaining sightings are hard to confirm due to the lack of photographic taken, inaccurate reporting, or delusions. Some people have given evidences to support the appearance of the UFOs, arguing that there is a conspiracy to hide the truth. The paper deals with UFOs phenomenon, which is an unexplained aerial event that has happened for a long time. It discusses the evidences of UFOs’ existence and the question of whether we are not alone in this universe as well as the theories surrounding these aerial events. 2. Discussion of findings 2.1. The Evidences For centuries, the UFOs reports have been familiar with people throughout the world. According to UN (2011), it is estimated that since 1947, about 150 million people have witnessed the UFO phenomenon and most of the reports from these people are general sighting. Many picture and video have been taken and recorded to be the evidence of this unexplained aerial event, however, this type of evidence is not convincing enough and hard to confirm due to the lack of the photographic quality, technical problems and photoshop. So if UFOs exist, do they leave some physical evidence? The answer is yes, they do. The first type of physical evidence is radar evidence. With so many radar tracking......

Words: 1789 - Pages: 8