Smes Access to Finance

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Hawrre
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‫اﻟﺒﻨﻚ اﻟﻤﺮآﺰي اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ‬

‫‪‬א‪‬א‪‬‬ ‫א‪‬א‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺻﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ اﻟﻌﺎم ﻟﻼﺣﺼﺎء‬ ‫واﻻﺑﺤﺎث‬

‫ﺑـــﺪر ﻏﻴﻼن - ﺧﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﺣﺼﺎء واﻻﺑﺤﺎث‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻚ اﻟﻤﺮآﺰي اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ‬

‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ اﻻول ـ ٣٠٠٢‬
‫١‬

‫ﻣﻘــﺪﻣــــــــﺔ‬ ‫"""""""""‬
‫ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ) ‪ (Micro Enterprises‬ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻏﻠـﺏ ﺒﻠـﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻡ ،‬ ‫ﻭﻻﺴﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻜﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﺔ ﻻﺯﺩﻫﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁـﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻜﻭﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜل ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﻴﺔ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻴﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ، ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠـﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﻅـﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﻴﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﻜﻭﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ٠ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻫﺎﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴـﺭﺓ ﻭﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺼﺩﺭﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻁـﺭﺩ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﺠﺫﺭﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴـﺔ ٠‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﺍﺭﺒﺎﺤﻬﻡ ﻤﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻘﻬﻡ ٠ ﻭﻫـﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﻠﻘﻭﻥ ﻓﺭﺹ ﻋﻤل ﻟﻌﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻵﻻﻑ ﻭﻴﺨﺭﺠﻭﻥ ﺤﺭﻓﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﻬﻨﻴﻴﻥ ﺠﺩﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺍﻡ ،‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻨﻬﻡ ﺒﻤﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻴﻌﻴﻠـﻭﻥ ﺍﺴـﺭﺍ ﻤﻤﺘـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫،ﺘﺸﻤل ، ﻋـﺩﺍ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺒﻨﺎﺀ ، ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗـﺎﺭﺏ ، ﻭﻜـﺫﻟﻙ ﻓـﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﻴﻥ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻨﺘﻤﺎﺌﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﺌﺢ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﺭﺒﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﺎﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴـﺔ٠‬ ‫ﻭﺘـﺩل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴـﺔ ﺘﺴـﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺏ ﻫﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺼـﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻤﻴـﺔ ٠ ﻤﺜـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻴﻁﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩ ﻭﻜﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﻨﻐﻼﺩﻴﺵ ، ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل ﻴﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻴﻁﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬﻡ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻻﺴﺭﻴﺔ ﻋـﺎﻤﻼ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻤﺸﺎﻏل ﺍﻟﺫﻫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠـﻭﺍﻫﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠـﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﺭﻴـﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺠـﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺯﻑ ﻭﺍﻻﺜﺎﺙ ﻭﺍﻻﺤﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻼﺒﺱ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻟﻙ ٠ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ ﺘﻠـﻙ ﺍﻟﺼـﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺜل ﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺘﻭﻨﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻐـﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌـﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺭﻯ…...

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Scaling Up Access to Finance for India's Rural Poor

...Report No. - IN INDIA Scaling-up Access to Finance for India’s Rural Poor September 6, 2004 FINANCE AND PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT UNIT South Asia Region Document of the World Bank TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I. INTRODUCTION 2 India’s Rural Finance Landscape 4 What are the financial needs of the rural poor? 4 Rural finance service providers 5 II. ACCESS TO RURAL FINANCE IN INDIA: THE EVIDENCE 8 Supply Side Indicators of Access to Finance 8 Access to Rural Finance: Evidence from the Demand Side 12 Access to savings/deposit accounts 14 Payments Services – Limited use, high cash economy 15 Access to Credit 15 Access to Insurance 17 The Importance of Informal Finance 17 III. WHAT CONSTRAINS ACCESS TO FINANCE FOR INDIA’S RURAL POOR? 19 Why Banks Are Reluctant To Lend to Rural Clients 19 Lack of credit information. 20 The tyranny of collateral 20 Weak legal framework and enforcement issues. 21 Government policy 21 Why Do Small, Rural Borrowers Find Rural Banks Unattractive? 26 Absence of flexible products and services 26 Transactions costs 26 Collateral 27 IV. RECENT EFFORTS IN INDIA TO IMPROVE RURAL ACCESS TO FINANCE: THE ROLE OF FORMAL—INFORMAL LINKAGES AND NEW PRODUCTS 28 SHG-bank Linkage Approach: Linking Commercial Banks to Grassroots Borrowers 28 How Effective Has SHG Bank Linkage Been in Targeting the Poor? 30 Impact on vulnerability of poor......

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Sme Banking

...Organization Consulting Project (O.C.P) On SME Banking of BRAC Bank Limited Submitted by : Nishat Farhana Matric No- B061409 22 Batch, BBA Submitted to : Kazi Farzana Lecturer in Management, IIUC,DC. Department of Business Administration International Islamic University Chittagong Date of Submission:12-12-2010 DECLARATION This is to notify that this presented report titled "SME Banking of BRAC Bank Ltd." is written as a requirement of Ocp. I also confirm that this report is prepared solely for the academic requirement and not for any other purposes and for the use of any other party. Signature ........................... Nishat Farhana Matricno.:B061409 Program: BBA, Batch: 22B 1, Major in Marketing Department of Business Administration, International Islamic University Chittagong, Dhaka Campus. Letter of Submission Dated: December 12, 2010 To, The Head, Department of Business Administration, International Islamic University Chittagong, Dhaka Campus. Subject: Submission of research report based on“SME BANKING OF BRAC BANK LTD” Dear Sir, It is very pleasure & opportunity to submit my research report on “SME BANKING OF BRAC BANK LTD”-a study of BRAC BANK Limited. As per my organizations requirement & supervisor’s suggestion and guidance, I have tried my best to make the report effective and standard. I have closely studied the operations & functioning of the company. Still if there is any room for further......

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Sme Sector

...SME defined by SBP as an entity having less than 250 employees and Rs. 300 million revenues. SMEs account for a substantial part of the economy; there are about 3.2 million enterprises in Pakistan, of which about 3 million (93%) are SMEs. SMEs spread across the economy with varying density: see exhibit 1-A for the sector wise division of SME sector. According to a survey conducted by SMEDA, this sector contributes more than 30% to GDP and 25% to the country’s total export earnings, and employs close to 70% of the labor force in the manufacturing industry, services, and trade. Their share in manufacturing value addition is estimated to be around 35%. Small & medium businesses play a very critical role when economies are transiting from low to middle income levels yet Pakistan has paid less attention to the growth and development of this crucial pillar of economy. Our report mainly focuses on the financial constraint to growth of this sector. Capital requirements: According to SMEDA there’re 800,000 SMEs in Pakistan that are eligible for bank loans. Another 2.4 million potential businesses that can’t qualify for bank loans mainly rely on other sources of finance for their business needs. Approximately 89% of working capital and 75% of fixed investments are financed from retained earnings. (See exhibit 1-B) Remaining financing needs are fulfilled from external sources which include family and friends, bank loans and other small sources as depicted in exhibit 2-A. Despite......

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Sme in Bangladesh

...SUMMARY Overall, the SME FDI is currently an extremely valuable initiative. Through appropriate and careful analysis of the data, public policy can be directed yet more efficiently to further improve competitive advantage of Canada's SMEs. In particular, the baseline survey associated with the SME FDI is an extraordinarily valuable research undertaking. It provides the potential to assess directly the extent to which financing gaps might occur in the capital markets on which SMEs rely. This is an important issue in practical terms, in terms of the role of public policy, and in terms of economic and finance theory. The SME FDI baseline survey data provides, for the first time internationally, a means of empirically testing Nobel prize-winning ideas related to information asymmetry and capital rationing. The data provides a means of providing yet better guidance for public policy with respect to addressing potential capital market imperfections that might constrain growth and economic development of SMEs. As designed, the research initiative can and will provide valuable information about these issues. In summary, the baseline survey undertaken as part of the SME FDI is a potentially invaluable resource with respect to the design, targeting, implementation, and follow-up assessment of public policy approaches to nurturing SME growth and viability. The outcomes of this research process could help Industry Canada and its partners to provide Canadian SMEs with substantial......

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