Voices of Freedom

In: English and Literature

Submitted By lake33
Words 2314
Pages 10
Mastering Concepts

8.1

1. Explain the roles of mitotic cell division, meiosis, and fertilization in the human life cycle.

Mitotic cell division allows for tissue repair/replacement and for an organism’s development from a fertilized egg (zygote) to an adult. Meiosis creates genetically variable gametes that each contain half the genetic material of a nonreproductive cell. The male gamete fertilizes the female gamete during sexual reproduction, forming a zygote with a full set of genetic material.

2. Why are both cell division and apoptosis necessary for the development of an organism?

Cell division produces the new cells that make up an organism. Apoptosis (programmed cell death) carves out structures such as fingers and toes; it also protects an organism by eliminating damaged cells that might otherwise become cancerous.

8.2

1. Why does DNA replicate?

DNA replicates before a cell divides so that each daughter cell receives a complete set of genetic information.

2. What is semiconservative replication?

Semiconservative replication means that only one strand of a DNA molecule is newly formed. The other strand is original DNA from the parent cell.

3. What are the steps of DNA replication?

The helicase enzyme unwinds and separates a double-stranded DNA molecule; binding proteins keep the strands separate. The primase enzyme forms a short stretch of complementary RNA on each DNA template. Starting at the end of the RNA primer, DNA polymerase adds DNA nucleotides that are complementary to the template strand, proofreading and correcting errors as it goes. Another enzyme removes the RNA primers, and DNA polymerase fills in the gaps left by the primers. The ligase enzyme seals the resulting nicks in the newly synthesized DNA.

4. Could DNA replication occur if primase were not present in a cell? Explain your answer.

Primase’s job…...

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