What Is Motivation

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By ninasbanios
Words 643
Pages 3
What Is Motivation?
A motive is an impulse that causes a person to act.Motivation is an internal process that makes a person move toward a goal. Motivation, like intelligence, can’t be directly observed. Instead, motivation can only be inferred by noting a person’s behavior.
<a href="http://ad.amgdgt.com/ads/?t=c&c=NRmyDI" target="_blank"><img src="http://ad.amgdgt.com/ads/?t=i&f=h&p=2798&pl=e5f41d63&c=NRmyDI&rnd=3895242" width="300" height="250" border="0" /></a>
Researchers have proposed theories that try to explain human motivation. These theories include drive reduction theories and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.
Drive Reduction Theories
Drive reduction theories of motivation suggest that people act in order to reduce needs and maintain a constant physiological state. For example, people eat in order to reduce their need for food. The idea of homeostasis is central to drive reduction theories.Homeostasis is the maintenance of a state of physiological equilibrium.
Drive reduction theories fail to explain several aspects of motivation: * People sometimes aren’t motivated by internal needs.
Example: Some people fast for long periods for political causes, despite feeling extreme hunger. * Sometimes, people continue being motivated even when they have satisfied internal needs.
Example: People sometimes eat even when they don’t feel hungry. * People are often motivated by external incentives as well as internal needs.
Example: If a person is hungry, he or she may choose to eat a salad rather than a cheeseburger because he or she wants to be slimmer.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
A motivation may be intrinsic, extrinsic, or both. Intrinsic motivation is the motivation to act for the sake of the activity alone. For example, people have…...

Similar Documents


...Motivation Introduction This essay is about defining Motivation and how it affects employees. Also an explanation of the main the types are to be given. A research on popular Theorist was done to support the definition and types. The researcher recognized what impact motivation has on the workplace and seek to discuss the importance. Theory Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an individual to act towards a desired goal and elicits controls and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force, a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action towards a desired goal. In other words, a person may have certain needs or wants, and this causes them to do certain things (behavior), which satisfy those needs (satisfaction). Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives: Content and Process theories. Content Theories deal with “what” motivates people and it is concerned with individual needs and goals. Process Theories deal with the “process” of motivation and is concerned with “how” motivation occurs.(Ozgurzan, 2013). For this paper the researcher would focus Content Theories. Developing out from the Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET- Deci 1975) it was stated motivation can be divided into two types: extrinsic (external) motivation and intrinsic (internal) motivation . Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are two opposing ways to motivate people. Extrinsic motivation deals with......

Words: 1276 - Pages: 6


...Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and situation. Motivation is” the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal” (Robbins 2003) Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation. Direction is the orientation that benefits the organization and persistence is a measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort. Motivation individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal. Motivation means to move. It includes three common characteristics: It concerned with what activates human behavior, It involves what directs this behavior towards a particular goals, and Motivation concerned how this behavior is sustained. The motivation factors are; Job security, Sympathetic help with personal problems, Personal loyalty to employees, Interesting work, Good working conditions, Tactful discipline, Good wages, Promotions and growth in the organization, Feeling of being in on things, and Full appreciation of work done. Process of motivations are; Needs (desire or wants), Drives, Goal, and Relief/ Incentives. JOB SATISFACTION. It is defined as an individual’s general attitudes toward his/her job. A high level of job satisfaction equals positives attitudes towards the job and vice-a-versa. Job satisfaction is the sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well.......

Words: 790 - Pages: 4


...Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. External factors that stimulate desire an energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job that is getting people to do things by rewarding them. Example of motivation is if teachers inform the class that whoever out of the students get the highest mark she would reward them with a toy or something that interest the students, which the students would be happy to receive that would motivate them to do their work. There are a number of different views as to what motivates workers. Fredrick Taylor put forward the idea that are motivated mainly by pay. His theory of Scientific Management argued that workers naturally do not enjoy work and close supervision is necessary. Taking this theory into consideration, managers should train workers and provide appropriate tools to get a general idea of the interest of each worker to give item or set a particular task that they would be qualified or interested in doing, which would help with producing of products to increase profits. Workers are then paid according to the number of items they produce, as a result workers will be encouraged to work hard and maximize their productivity. Taylor’s theory also makes you consider the self-determination theory, then is where people prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task......

Words: 641 - Pages: 3


...Motivation Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term motivation is frequently used to describe why a person does something. Psychologists have proposed a number of different theories of motivation, including drive theory, instinct theory and humanistic theory. There are three major components to motivation: activation, persistence and intensity. Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist, such as taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy and resources. Finally, intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal. Different types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition or praise. Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated cross-word puzzle purely for the personal gratification of solving a......

Words: 518 - Pages: 3

What Are the Main Motivation Theories and How Could Science of Delight Replace Them?

...There are many different motivation theories that are used day to day in the running of many businesses. The two main ones are Taylor Maslow (‘hierarchy of needs’) and Hertzberg (two factor theory) Maslow’s theory is about how everyone has a ‘hierarchy of needs’ which is that everyone has similar types of needs, which can be sorted into a hierarchy. There are five main categories physiological needs (food, clothes, accommodation), safety (security from danger, safe working conditions), social (need to make friends and feel like you belong somewhere), esteem (having respect for others and self respect) and self-actualisation (achieving ones potential through actions and achievements). Maslow believed that if these were achieved then the maximum potential of the employee can be seen. Science of delight could easily replace this theory as one of the main issues on the hierarchy of needs is self-actualisation. Science of delight is all about how if employees know what the customer wants and needs it can empower them to do be more efficient in the work place. As Maslow states ‘A healthy man is primarily motivated by his needs to develop and actualize his fullest potentialities and capacities’; this directly links to science of delight, so can science of delight thus replace this theory, if in a way it is already included in it. To prove science of delight has the ability to replace Maslow’s theory, stronger evidence that the concept works would emphasise to the employees......

Words: 558 - Pages: 3


...Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. The term motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, meaning "to move." Motivation is what causes us to act. Motivation can also be the reason for an individual's action or that which gives purpose and direction to behavior. Motivation is any Internal and external process that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation plays an important role in a business environment, as employee motivation is believed to improved work performance. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the following three aspects (1) intensity of desire or need, (2) incentive or reward value of the goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in the class. Another example is we work because we don’t have money. Motives are expressions of a person's need and hence they are personal and internal as well. Motivation is something's that motivates a person into action and continues him/her in the course of action. It is complex of forces inspiring a person to work intensifying his willingness to use his/her ability to......

Words: 1425 - Pages: 6

What Is Motivation

...listen twice as much as he talk and I respect him and everyone respect him because he is sociable and he is very ambitious and creative . First of all, he focus on the person that he talking to. He makes eye contact and a smile, when I talk to him I feel that he showing me a sincere interest. Charismatic people don’t spend time checking their phones or look at their watches when they talks to others Secondly, he doesn’t drag others down when he is having a bad day . In my opinion if a charismatic people aren’t feeling up to par .They would rather stay away from people until they are feeling better Thirdly he listen twice as much as he talk and he know why he has two ears and only one mouth , and when he talk he doesn’t tell others what to do , and he is not bossy or opinionated, he respect everybody opinion, I think charismatic people don’t think they are more important than anyone else In my opinion, being a charismatic person is a wonderful thing because you will be easy going and open minded when you talk to others . If you had a bad day you would like to stay away for a wild , and you would like to hear people and concentrate to theirs talk . Thanks a lot...

Words: 260 - Pages: 2


...Sources of Motivation This document will provide a brief description of what motivation is; it will identify at least two sources of motivation, explain the relationship between motivation and behavior, and will examine how behavior exhibits motivation. How is motivation defined? Motivation is defined as an internal process that makes an individual move toward a goal, and it is what causes an individual to act the way he or she does to accomplish that goal. However, motivation can only be limited by an individual’s behavior (Deckers, 2010). The sources of motivation are able to originate from internal sources that are described as biological and psychological variables, and from external sources, such as incentives and goals (Deckers, 2010). The most important sources of motivation are biological, psychological, emotional, environmental, and evolutionary. Biological and psychological have an immense influence on motivation as well as and these two sources are considered internal variables while environmental is considered an external variable. Biological is emotions or feelings such as appetite and hormones that work in the individual body. Psychological can be described as the “need to feel right” that can motivate the individual to act together with others. Environmental is described as the positive incentives or goals that create a center of attention on an individual whereas the negative consequences are a drive back to the individual. Emotional can be......

Words: 916 - Pages: 4


...OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Types of motivation 3. Major theories of motivation 4. Importance of motivation 5. Benefits and effects of motivation 6. Conclusion 7. References 1. INTRODUCTION Competition between organizations is becoming more and more fierce. It requires organizations to operate efficiently while innovates effectively for the future. ‘Managers and leaders within those organizations cannot only be focused on the market success and profitability of each project, but they also need to motivate their employees in order to be profitable and successful.’[1] ‘Motivation is one of the most critical drivers in personal and business success. Without motivation, nothing gets done.’[2] ‘Motivation plays crucial role in achieving goals and business targets and is equally as important for companies that work in team-based environment and in a workplace comprised of people who work independently. It is very important to make sure that each employee's goals and values are aligned with the organization's mission and vision. That is major issue for creating and maintaining a high level of motivation, which often leads to higher productivity, improved quality of work and financial gain.’[3] ‘Motivation is the creation of stimuli, incentives, and working environments which enable people to perform to the best of their ability in pursuit of organizational success. Motivation is commonly viewed as the magic driver that enables......

Words: 4132 - Pages: 17

Use the Theory of Maslow or Herzberg to Explain the Decrease in Employee Motivation Following the Takeover. What Steps Might Management Take to Re-Establish High Employee Motivation?

...Use the theory of Maslow or Herzberg to explain the decrease in employee motivation following the takeover. What steps might management take to re-establish high employee motivation? Motivation is a "needs-led" process determined through a basic process of an unsatisfied need or urge which leads to tension, further leading to search behaviour and finally leads to either need satisfaction or further search. However in practice the process is more complex than presented as sometimes multiple needs are needed at the same time as well as conflicting needs. Frederick Herzberg developed a theory on motivation during the midst of the 20th century which is most commonly known as the "dual factor theory". This is generally used when investigating motivation in organisations. His study was based on a survey of a study of 203 people across the 2 professional groups of engineers and accountants at Pittsburgh University, where they were asked to recall times over the previous year when they felt "exceptionally good" and "exceptionally bad" and their explanation for each case. From this study he identified two distinct list of factors that altered their motivation. These lists were a set of factors which cause satisfaction and dissatisfaction with both lists being mutually exclusive. The factors of satisfiers or Motivators, which are understood to yield a real sense of motivation in employees, are ordered in a list increasing in frequency beginning with a sense of personal......

Words: 1364 - Pages: 6


...Motivation is a theoretical construct, used to explain behavior. It is the scientific word used to represent the reasons for our actions, our desires, our needs, etc. Motives are hypothetical constructs, used to explain why people do what they do. A motive is what prompts a person to act in a certain way or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior.[1] For example, when someone eats food to satisfy the need of hunger, or when a student does his/her work in school because they want a good grade. Both show a similar connection between what we do and why we do it. According to Maehr and Meyer, "Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are".[2] Wikipedia readers will have a motive (or motives) for reading an article, even if such motives are complex and difficult to pinpoint. At the other end of the range of complexity, hunger is frequently the motive for seeking out and consuming food.Types of theories and models[edit] Motivation theories can be classified on a number of basis. Natural vs. Rational based on whether the underlying theory of human Cognition is based on natural forces (drives, needs, desires) or some kind of rationality (instrumentality, meaningfulness, self-identity). Content vs. Process based on whether the focus is on the content ("what") motivates vs process ("how") motivation takes place. Monist and pluralistic motivational theories[edit] A class of theories about why people do things seeks...

Words: 8883 - Pages: 36

What Is Motivation

...Q No 1 What is motivation ? Definition Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the (1) intensity of desire or need, (2) incentive or reward value of the goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in the class. What type of non-financial rewards might a company use to motivate employees ? Every employee certainly appreciates more money, but money does not buy happiness, nor does it buy engagement and loyalty. Non-financial incentives inspire and engage employees in ways that money is incapable of doing. Non-financial incentives are the types of rewards that are not a part of an employee’s pay. Typically, they cost the company little or no money, yet carry significant weight. Incentives of this nature are particularly effective for workers who are comfortable with their salaries or have been in the position for a long time. As companies continue to make cuts to employee compensation, non-financial incentives for employees are more crucial than ever. Relationships Matter All too often, workers feel abused and unappreciated by the companies for which......

Words: 930 - Pages: 4


...EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION ON ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF CASE STUDY OF COCACOLA KWANZA COMPANY DAR ES SALAAM TANZANIA) BY OMARI RAHA SHEDRACK A Research Proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Human resources Management of Tumaini University Makumira-Dar es salaam College. 2015 IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION ON ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE: (A CASE STUDY OF CASE STUDY OF COCACOLA KWANZA COMPANY DAR ES SALAAM TANZANIA) BY OMARI RAHA SHEDRACK Supervisor: Dr. J. Mwita A Research Proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Human resources Management of Tumaini University Makumira-Dar es salaam College. 2015 ABSTRACT The study aims at assessing the impact of employee motivation on organization performance so as to help the organization know the contribution of motivation to them. This study will be carried out at Coca-Cola Kwanza Company limited at Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The study have the objectives of assessing various motivational packages for the staff of Coca cola Company Limited, to determine which of these motivational packages influence staff performance at Coca Cola Kwanza Company Limited, to assess the effect of motivational packages on corporate performance at Coca Cola kwanza Company limited, and to examine the motivation strategies of motivating employees The study is expected to help employers to determine whether......

Words: 4742 - Pages: 19

What Are My Motivations for College

...I decided I wanted to provide a great healthcare environment for patients; for the past 8 years I have been able to do that! Without having a degree, I make fairly decent money, however, I would like to make more. I see my boyfriend, who has a college degree and he thrives in the workplace and makes a significant amount of money, far more than I. By the time I finish my degree, I would like to be work in a hospital in a prestigious position, with substantial pay. All of these reasons are what initially enticed me to begin school. Now that I am successfully enrolled, some of those things will continue to motivate me. In the past, I went to a university right after high school. I didn’t have a reason to go to school, meaning nothing to actually motivate me. I went to school because my family told me to, I was smart, and it just seemed like the right thing to do. There was no drive for me, however, as a result, I ended up not finishing my degree. Now, every morning I wake up to my motivation; a little boy who goes by the name of Nathan. Nathan Michael Waters is my ultimate driving force for going to school. I want him to not only have a life that he is well provided for, but also a wonderful example. In the future, I cannot encourage him to not give up, when that was something I did in the past. Another key motivating factor for me is a recent job that I applied for and was offered. It is with one of the hospitals near me, they are a very well-known facility. The job I have......

Words: 817 - Pages: 4

What Is Motivation

...What is Motivation? Motivation is the force that makes us do things: this is a result of our individual needs being satisfied (or met) so that we have inspiration to complete the task. These needs vary from person to person as everybody has their individual needs to motivate themselves. Depending on how motivated we are, it may further determine the effort we put into our work and therefore increase the standard of the output. When we suggest factors (or needs) that determine the motivation of employees in the workplace, almost everyone would immediately think of a high salary. This answer is correct for the reason that some employees will be motivated by money, but mostly wrong for the reason that it does not satisfy others (to a lasting degree). This supports the statement that human motivation is a personal characteristic, and not a one fits all option. …………….. importances of motivations Motivation is a very important for an organization because of the following benefits it provides:- 1. Puts human resources into action
Every concern requires physical, financial and human resources to accomplish the goals. It is through motivation that the human resources can be utilized by making full use of it. This can be done by building willingness in employees to work. This will help the enterprise in securing best possible utilization of resources. 2. Improves level of efficiency of employees
The level of a subordinate or a employee does not only depend upon......

Words: 2234 - Pages: 9