Writing a Lab Report

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By yeet
Words 377
Pages 2
Writing a Laboratory Report
The final step in any scientific investigation is to communicate your findings. This is done in the form of a laboratory report or, for more involved studies, a scientific paper. There is a standard format that is generally used for both lab reports and papers. The sections are: * Title * Introduction * Materials and Methods * Results * Discussion * Literature Cited
Title: The title should be brief, descriptive, and should clearly indicate the nature of the study. For example, “increased sodium level decreases enzyme activity” is be better than “The effect of sodium on enzymes.”
Introduction: This section is usually just a few paragraphs long. Here you introduce the reader to the topic and spell out the problem or question being addressed, describe the hypothesis that is begin tested, and the predictions of possible experimental results.
Materials and Methods: In this section you are telling the reader how you tested your idea. After reading you Materials and Method section, the reader should be able to perform the experiment themselves. This section is written in paragraph form. In this section you also identify your independent and dependent variables.
Results: In this section you organize and summarize your results. Tables and graphs should be used whenever possible. These must be clearly labeled. It is alright to point out trends or oddities in the data in the Results section, but do not offer any explanations in this sections. Include calculations in this section when appropriate.
Discussion: here you interpret the results and answer the question that you outlined in you Introduction. If the experiment “didn’t work” offer explanations as to why not and indicate ways to fix your procedure. Suggest new questions that might be investigated based on your findings.
Literature Cited: If…...

Similar Documents

Writing Report

...Writing Guide for Project and Term Reports – Computer Engineering Department Drafted by: Dr. Zubair A. Baig A standard technical report written by an engineering student must include the following components: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Abstract – around 200 words Introduction and Background Technical Content (this section may have varying titles) Experiments and Results Conclusions References Template for Grading a Report Suggested Grade Distribution (out of 100) Spelling and Grammar Punctuation 2% Structure and Organization 3% Figures and Tables 3% Formulae & Equations (Proper Use) 2% Proper Use of References Report Quality & Writing Skills 3% 2% Proper Use of Appendices (If Applicable) - The Abstract Problem description and motivation (Introduction) 10% Objectives & Deliverables (Introduction) 8% Project Management Plan (Introduction) Technical Content 2% 10% Technical Content 20% Experiments/Simulations 15% Results and Discussion 15% Conclusions 2% Overall Quality of Engineering Documentation 3% Structure and Organization 1. Consistent use of fonts for titles, sub-titles, chapters, sub-chapters, sections, sub-sections, to enhance the readability and understanding of the report. 2. Consistent and correct display of information in the Table of Content, List of Figures and the List of Tables. The Abstract 1. Should not be longer than a single paragraph (2 paragraphs for a longer report). 2. Outlines the importance of what you have accomplished......

Words: 819 - Pages: 4

Report Writing

...I. INTRODUCTION A. Terms of Reference. On the instructions of Prof. Madya Dr. David Loh Er Fu, this report by Hizrul Ashraf Bin Mohd Razali, Muhammad Zulhaimy Bin Zamri, Mohd Istiqamah Bin Mohd Shafix and Muhammad Izwan Bin Hussain investigates the level of satisfaction on library services among part 5 Finance students in the UiTM Malacca City Campus. This report consist of 27 pages was called for on 11 April 2012 and to be submitted b 24 May 2012 together with his recommendations. B. Background of Study UiTM City Campus Malacca was launched on 26 Mac 2007 by the Y.A.B Ketua Menteri Melaka, Datuk Seri Haji Mohd.Ali bin Mohd.Rustam. UiTM Malacca City Campus which is situated at Jalan Hang Tuah, started its operation on 15 December 2006 and being conducted by 11 administration staff. Its academic activity started only on 3 January 2007. At 8 June 2011, UiTM Malacca’s City Campus now has 119 non-academic staffs and 188 academic staffs. Besides that, UiTM also provide many facilities and accommodation such as study hall, ICT room, and library for their students to feel suitable and better when study. Basically, in the library provide table and chair for students to study, provide space for watching television and read newspaper, provide thousands of academic and knowledge books, magazines, provide printer and photocopy machine, service for students to borrow the book, provide computer and internet service to facilitate students find information for their assignment.......

Words: 3337 - Pages: 14

Lab Report

...Lab 1: Introduction Metric System Prefixes (to put in front of basic units): k = kilo = 1000 x c = centi = 1/100 of (which is 10-2 of) m = milli = 1/1000 of (which is 10-3 of) ( = micro = 1/1,000,000 of (which is 10-6 of) n = nano = 1/1,000,000,000 of (which is 10-9 of) (d = deci = 1/10 of ) [pic] (Note: The way to read the numbers above, for example, is: There are 1000 nm in one (m. There are 1000 (m in one mm.. etc.) To convert from one metric unit to a different metric unit (a different prefix): 1. First, decide how many places to move the decimal point (the number of 0’s in the chart above indicates the number of places to move the decimal point). 2. Next you need to decide whether to move the decimal point left or right. To decide this, think about which is the smaller unit. (The smaller the unit is, the more of them you need to get the same amount. e.g. pennies vs. dollars) NOTE: Here is another way to write the conversions, using distance (the meter is the basic unit for distance) as an example: 0.001 km = 1 m = 10 dm = 100 cm = 1000 mm = 1,000,000 (m = 1,000,000,000 nm The “staircase” method: One more way to remember about sliding decimal points when converting between prefixes in the metric system! [pic] Move the decimal point 3 places for every step you move on the “staircase”, and in the same direction traveled on the staircase (left vs. right). Unfortunately, you can see that the “c”......

Words: 1090 - Pages: 5

Writing a Report

...more substantive role within the department. You argue that you can provide a thorough and sophisticated analysis of consumer expenditure, complete with reliable forecasts for the foreseeable future. You suggest preparing a report on the analysis of only a subset of goods and services to showcase your technical and analytical skills. The chief analyst agrees to consider your work. If the report you present is at par with the required standard, both in technical detail and analytical discussion, you would be assigned a more prestigious role in the larger scale project, which could lead to a promotion within the department to a more senior level. You are forwarded the data file report1213.dta, which contains, among other, information on UK household expenditure on certain ‘items’ from a wider survey of Consumer Trends in the country. Your task is to write a report comprising an analysis and forecasts, of three (3) household expenditure items. There are certain additional conditions: In the report you should demonstrate your forecasting skills by producing 2 year forecasts using appropriate forecasting techniques. Each expenditure item has to be forecasted with a different method. All modelling choices should be thoroughly supported by empirical evidence. The report should be 4,000 – 5,000 words in length including the executive summary, figure and table captions and notes, and foot/endnotes (a word count should be included). Appendices may be included but note that they......

Words: 1070 - Pages: 5

Report Writing

...REPORT WRITING Source: University of Canberra Academic Skills Centre Report Writing Report writing is an essential skill for professionals. A report aims to inform, as clearly and succinctly as possible. Below we give some general guidelines, but you should check with your lecturer for more detail on what is expected. A report is similar to an essay in that both need: • formal style • introduction, body and conclusion • analytical thinking • careful proof-reading and neat presentation A report differs from an essay in that a report: • presents information, not an argument • is meant to be scanned quickly by the reader • uses numbered headings and sub-headings • uses short, concise paragraphs and dot-points where applicable • uses graphics wherever possible (tables, graphs, illustrations) • may need an abstract (sometimes called an executive summary) • does not always need references and bibliography • is often followed by recommendations and/or appendices A report should generally include the following sections. (Sections marked with an asterisk (*) are essential: others are optional depending on the type, length and purpose of the report.) • Letter of transmittal • Title page* • Table of contents • List of abbreviations and/or glossary • Executive summary/abstract • Introduction* • Body* • Conclusion* • Recommendations • Bibliography • Appendices Presentation and style are important. First impressions count, so consider...

Words: 1413 - Pages: 6

Lab Report

...Lab 6: How to Write a Lab Report (1) Atta, S., M. Ikbal, A. Kumar, and N. D. Pradeep Singh. 2012. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 111:39-49. --This article shows that sunlight is the key requirement for plant growth. It explains how sunlight helps in releasing plant growth regulators in plants which enhances plant growth. This article is helpful for my lab report because we provided sunlight to our plants which makes their development faster. (2) Ikram-ul-Haq, Z. A., G. M. Taseer, M. U. D. Mukesh, and S. Ali. 2011. Effects of different fruit juices used as carbon source on cucumber seedling under in-virto cultures. African Journal of Biotechnology 10:7404-7408. --This article shows how fruit juices help plants to grow better because of the sugar that fruit juices contain. They used strawberry and apple juices, but they were not as good as orange and grape juices, regarding their effect on plant growth. This article is helpful for my lab report because we used orange juice to measure its effect on the growth of our plants. (3) Einset, J.W. 1978. Citrus tissue culture: stimulation of fruit explants cultures with orange juice. Plant Physiology 62:885-888. --This article shows the effect of orange juice on plant growth. It explains how using high concentrations of citric acid does not enhance the plant growth, but using...

Words: 299 - Pages: 2

Lab Reports

...C8057 (Research Methods in Psychology): Writing Laboratory Reports Writing Lab Reports & APA Format Structure and Content of a Laboratory Report This following provides a brief overview of the structure and content of various elements in a laboratory report, based on APA guidelines. The APA publication manual can be referred to for more detail. The purpose of a lab report is to communicate research in a clear, systematic and standardised way. Primarily, a lab report should communicate the following things: → Why did I bother? Why did I do this experiment and why is it an interesting contribution to science? → How did I do it? How did I carry out this research (this should be detailed enough so that the experiment could be replicated precisely)? → What did I find? What were the results of your study? → So What? What do your findings mean in terms of your hypotheses and what theoretical contribution do they make? IMPORTANT! The advice that we give you in this handout is not inflexible, it is a guide! For example, when we say that the title should be fewer than 15 words, the world will not end if your title is 16 words. So, please use your common sense. In case you don’t have any, the snail of sense will appear to give you some advice. Format There are several sections to a lab report: → Title → Abstract → Introduction → Method o o o o o → Results → Discussion → References → Appendix (Optional) Title Your title should ideally be fewer than 15 words. A good title alerts the......

Words: 7238 - Pages: 29

Writing Report

...Writing Report Kathy Engle CJA 304 5/17/2014 James Backus Writing Report According to the Webster dictionary communication is (“A process in which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, and behavior.”)1 in this research paper it will be addressing verbal and nonverbal communication. The difference between hearing, and listening is another component of communication. Another thing that is going to be mentioned is the different barriers to effective communication in criminal justice organizations. In the end the research carries us to the different barriers to effective communication in criminal justice organizations. There is two types of communication verbal, and nonverbal. In research it was hard to break down the different styles of verbal communication, but it is base around there 4our aspects, blaming, directing, problem solving, and persuading. With nonverbal communication you have writing as in a written word, and body movements. It is mostly important to have good listening skills, because research has shown that (“listening to a 10-minute oral presentation, the average listener has heard, understood, and retained 50 percent of what was said.”)2 When you repeat what the person told you back to them then that shows good communication. With the nonverbal communication you best be careful because your body movement can give you away, like if a person is lying, or guilty about something it will show in their body......

Words: 1162 - Pages: 5

Report Writing

...Report writing Assignment 1: Checklist 1. Advice report 2. Budget: 100,000, limitations, personal wants. 3. Hotel manager 4. You should discuss the final date with the manager 5. With the hotel manager. 6. 20 pages for the report. Crystal clear. Assignment 2: Kings Hotel cannot compete with their modernized competition because of their old-fashioned services and interior. Customers complain because they can’t have breakfast in their hotel. The hotel suffers from lack of promotion and extra facilities. Assignment 3: How can Kings Hotel survive the tyranny of their modernized competitors and compete with their rivals while increasing profit again? Assignment 4: 1. Introduction 1 2. Current situation at Kings Hotel 2 2.1 Interior 2 2.2 Services 2 3. Problems occurring at Kings Hotel 3 3.1 Obstacles 3 3.2 Competitors 3 4. Plan of approach 4 4.1 Actions 4 4.2 Solutions 4 5. Financial resources 5 5.1 Budget Kings Hotel 5 5.2 Financial plan 5 6. Future insight 6 6.1 Interior 6 6.2 Services 6 7. Conclusion and recommendations 7 7.1 Conclusions 8 7.2 Recommendations 8 8. Reference list 9 9. Appendices 9 Assignment 5: Kings Hotel cannot compete with their modernized competition because of their old-fashioned services and interior.......

Words: 908 - Pages: 4

Report Writing

...Report writing Assignment 1: Checklist 1. Advice report 2. Budget: 100,000, limitations, personal wants. 3. Hotel manager 4. You should discuss the final date with the manager 5. With the hotel manager. 6. 20 pages for the report. Crystal clear. Assignment 2: Kings Hotel cannot compete with their modernized competition because of their old-fashioned services and interior. Customers complain because they can’t have breakfast in their hotel. The hotel suffers from lack of promotion and extra facilities. Assignment 3: How can Kings Hotel survive the tyranny of their modernized competitors and compete with their rivals while increasing profit again? Assignment 4: 1. Introduction 1 2. Current situation at Kings Hotel 2 2.1 Interior 2 2.2 Services 2 3. Problems occurring at Kings Hotel 3 3.1 Obstacles 3 3.2 Competitors 3 4. Plan of approach 4 4.1 Actions 4 4.2 Solutions 4 5. Financial resources 5 5.1 Budget Kings Hotel 5 5.2 Financial plan 5 6. Future insight 6 6.1 Interior 6 6.2 Services 6 7. Conclusion and recommendations 7 7.1 Conclusions 8 7.2 Recommendations 8 8. Reference list 9 9. Appendices 9 Assignment 5: Kings Hotel cannot compete with their modernized competition because of their old-fashioned services and interior.......

Words: 908 - Pages: 4

Lab Report

...Apparatus, materials and methods "As the name implies, the materials and methods used in the experiments should be reported in this section. The difficulty in writing this section is to provide enough detail for the reader to understand the experiment without overwhelming him or her. When procedures from a lab book or another report are followed exactly, simply cite the work, noting that details can be found in that particular source. However, it is still necessary to describe special pieces of equipment and the general theory of the assays used. This can be usually be done in a short paragraph, possibly along with a drawing of the experiment apparatus. Generally, this section attempts to answer the following questions: 1, What materials were used? 2. How were they used? 3. Where and when was the work done? (This question is most important in field studies.)" Observations and/or results with discussion Results "The results section should summarize the data from the experiments without discussing their implications. The data should be organized into tables, figures, graphs, photographs, and so on. But data included in a table should not be duplicated in a figure or graph. All figures and tables should have descriptive titles and should include a legend explaining any symbols, abbreviations, or special methods used. Figures and tables should be numbered separately and should be referred to in the text by number, for example: -Figure 1 shows that the activity......

Words: 287 - Pages: 2

Lab Report

...Lab Report Using Gravitational Force as a Measurement Tool Answer the following questions about the results of this activity. Record your answers in the boxes. Send your completed lab report to your instructor. Don’t forget to save your lab report to your computer! Activity 1 Record your data from Activity 1 in the boxes below. Enter the data for the sample you used in each trial (5000 rpm, 10000 rpm, etc…) in the appropriate columns and the corresponding g-force, number of layers, and position of layers position results. You will need to use the following formula to assist with your laboratory report: • G-force =0 00001118 x radius of centrifuge arm x (rpm)2 • The radius of the centrifuge arm for this instrument is 10 cm. | | | | | | |Speed |5000 rpm |10000 rpm |15000 rpm |20000 rpm | | |2795 |1180 |2655 |4720 | |G-force | | | | | | | |4 |5 |3 | |Number of......

Words: 436 - Pages: 2

Lab Report

...To do Lab Report for Single and Double Replacement reactions : This is a formal lab report. It must be typed or written by hand with blue or black ink. Make sure that you include the following: 1. Title 2. List of Materials 3. Safety that includes MSDS risk assessment for all the materials used ( instructions were given to you already and they are in Moodle) 4. Pre-lab questions 5. Data Tables with the results obtained ( observations and predictions) 6. Post Lab: Part I : Single Replacement Reactions a. For every reaction that took place you must write the balanced chemical equation b. Which metal reacted the most? c. Rank your metals from more to least active Part II: Double replacement Reactions a. For every reaction where you observed precipitate, write the complete balanced molecular equation, the complete ionic equation and the net ionic equation; use the solubility rules to identify the precipitate and the states of matter of each substance participating in the reaction. b. Which cation produced the most number of precipitates? c. Write general rules of solubility that you observed. 7. Final Conclusion and error analysis To do Lab Report for Single and Double Replacement reactions : This is a formal lab report. It must be typed or written with blue or black ink. Make sure that you include the following: 1. Title 2. List of Materials 3. Safety that includes MSDS risk assessment for all the materials used (......

Words: 374 - Pages: 2

Lab Report

...Lab reportTeiya Bilon August 16, 2011 Period 3 Physical Science This past week in lab, Mr.Kagawa divided us into groups to complete a toothpick bridge. Some of the requirements were that the entire bridge had to span 12 inches apart and 2 inches off the surface, with the support of piers. While we worked together with our teammates we got to know more about the people we are working with. We researched different structures of other bridges in class as well as at home. We also gathered information on how we would use the supplies we are provided to promote good strength on the base of the bridge. The purpose of labs are: to work well with a good amount of people in a group, gain better knowledge of the scientific method, and to also have fun. Working with other people gave me more ideas on how to construct different models of bridges. To gain better knowledge and understanding of the scientific method, actually writing it out and following the procedure helped. The lab was very fun, it wasn’t like any ordinary class where you’d take notes and read from a book. Our hypothesis stated, if the pillars and base were thick and strong then it would hold more books and not break. The materials we used were also apart of the requirements and constraints. We were only given a certain amount of toothpicks and other than that just glue and our open mind. Steps throughout lab: 1) Group drafted blueprint 2) Got materials from teacher 3) Start constructing the......

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Lab Report

...Why do we keep a lab notebook? In the ‘real world’, you will be expected to record what you do and how you do it, with the data clearly identifiable. There are 2 reasons for this: • Any scientific experiment is only considered valid if it can be repeated by someone else using your notebook. • If you develop a new product or process, your notebook becomes a legal document that can be scrutinized in a court of law, especially in cases of patent infringement. In order to meet these requirements, certain conditions must be met: • Notebooks shall have bound pages, loose-leaf and spiral bound are not acceptable. • All pages must be numbered prior to use. This will show if any pages have been removed that contained data that might compromise interpretation of your conclusions. • All data shall be entered chronologically. Do not leave empty pages to insert information later. If you finish with a large expanse of blank page, put a line through it to show that it will not be used. • All notes are to be made in indelible pen – pencil will be penalized. If you make a mistake, just draw a single line through it, not a childish scribble to hide all traces! • All data will be recorded in your lab notebook at the moment it is generated. No notes shall be written on scraps of paper or memorized for later. Other notes about the lab notebook: All pre-lab and experimental work is hand-written in your lab notebook. ......

Words: 1389 - Pages: 6