Expectancy Theory Of Motivation

  • Expectancy Theory

    Expectancy Theory of Motivation Lina Khachekian In order for businesses to motivate, they need to make sure that they practice motivation on a regular basis. If they practice what they preach, they will receive and see the full output that their employees give them. Victor Vroom proposed The expectancy theory of motivation in 1964, and this theory is one that is supposed to help guide businesses on what to do in order to achieve the motivation levels and continue to retain all of your employees

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  • Motivation Theories

    Chapter 1: Introduction to Employee Motivation 1.1. Introduction An issue which usually generates a great deal of attention from most managers, administrators and those involved in Human Resources Management is the issue of how to successfully motivate employee. While it is true that aspects like staff recruitment, controlling, managing, leading, and many more are of great importance to the success of an organization, Employee Motivation is generally considered a core element in running a successful

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  • Motivation and Expectancy Theory

    Motivation “What managers expect of subordinates and the way they treat them largely determine their performance” (J. Sterling Livingstone) . A key issue for the success of any company is the performance of its employees. Whether the organization reaches its goals, whether it creates value and manages change and innovation effectively depends highly on the efficiency of the people working for it. Moreover, the extent to which employees will work efficiently is related to their motivation.

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  • Use of Expectancy Theory in Hrm

    Introduction This theory was first proposed by Victor Vroom back in the year 1964. He insisted more on the outcomes unlike Herzberg and Maslow who insisted more on the needs of individuals. The theory explains that individuals will tend to perform in particular manners depending on the intensity of expectation whereby definite outcomes will follow their performances on the appeal of the outcome to the individual. The theory shows a positive correlation between efforts and performances

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  • Expectancy Theory

    Expectancy Theory Overview Expectancy Theory is a sociological explanation of human motivation. The theory specifies a three factor formula used to quantify motivation. When these factors are multiplied together, they yield an indication of how strongly motivated someone is relative to a certain task or activity. The three factors are based on perceived probabilities and individual values. The product of these factors is the motivational force. The strength of the motivational force signal

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  • Motivation Theories

    Motivation Theories The psychoanalytic view of human motivation suggests that behavior is ultimately determined by unconscious sexual and aggressive drives. There are four basic principles to the psychoanalytic view. They are determinism, drive, conflict and the unconscious. There are forces over which we have no control and these forces determine all human behavior and experience. These powerful forces exist within us, and can be traced back to primitive drives or instincts. Those forces

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  • Theories of Motivation

    Theories of Motivation Abstract Motivation is the enthusiasm that one possesses in order to complete a certain task, action or desired outcome. If one lacks motivation the likelihood of a prolific product or outcome is unlikely. In education, two forms of motivation are focused on in being pertinent to student learning: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Examining the five theories of motivation: self-determination theory, attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, social-cognitive

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  • Expectancy Theory of Motivation

    Expectancy Theory of Motivation, an approach to improving performance. Mark R. Mattox Western Governors University Expectancy Theory of Motivation “Expectancy Theory - A theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.” (Judge 07/2012, p. 224) Explanation of the Three Components

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  • Motivation and Theories

    Differences Edith Woodard Walden University Dr. Chappell PSYC-5240-1 Human Motivation March 13, 2012 Motivational Similarities and Differences 1. Motivational Similarities and Differences Human behavior is something that has become the focus of research all over the world. Everyone who is anyone wants to know what causes us as human beings “to do what we do, and to act the way we act.” Some say that “motivation is also a desire operating on the will and causing it to act.” (Merriam-Webster

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  • Motivation Theory

    Douglas McGregor’s X,Y Theory of Motivation In his 1960 management book, The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor made his mark on the history of organizational management and motivational psychology when he proposed the two theories by which managers perceive employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Each assumes that the manager's role is to organize resources, including people, to best benefit the company. However, beyond

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  • Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Motivation

    Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation Motivation is defined as “psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior” (Kinicki and Kreitner, 2006). As a more business-related definition, motivation can be defined as “forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work” (Young, 2000). Motivating employees can be extremely challenging and complex for an organization’s leaders and managers. For an organization to

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  • Expectancy Theory of Motivation

    Expectancy Theory of Motivation In a business, what motivates employees to do their best? One theory that may explain the reasons why some employees seem more motivated than others is the Expectancy theory of motivation. The Expectancy theory operates under the assumption that employees will perform well based on self-belief and how much they desire the rewards their actions will render. Three key components and relationships in this theory determine how motivated an employee will choose to be:

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  • Theories of Motivation

    Motivation is certainly a topic that demonstrates the complexities of human nature. The simple question of, “What motivates you?” is quite loaded in terms of the highly individualized responses one would receive. As Psychology suggests by the numerous theories of motivation, each individual is clearly motivated by many different factors. It is through our motivation that defines us as individuals and propels us towards certain behaviors that satisfy various needs. “Psychologists use the term

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  • Path-Goal/Expectancy Theory

    Student Name:       Goal: Developing a thorough understanding of theories by applying a motivation theory and a leadership theory to a popular movie. Movie choice (Indicate option on pull-down menu): Path Goal Theory: Identify the four behaviors used by leaders (according to this theory) and the situations under which each behavior should be used: Behavior 1: Directive Leaders - directive leadership is defined in

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  • Motivation Theories

    Tunney MAN 301 Written Assignment 5 Part 1 Motivation Theories Companies rely on their employees to produce products or provide services in a timely fashion. While employees can easily learn the tasks and procedures required to carry out their roles, organizations can benefit from providing motivational incentives for a good job performance. A motivated employee is someone that works hard because they feel fulfilled when they do so. Motivation is defined as the result of the interaction of

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  • Theories of Motivation

    Motivation is the force that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. It is what causes us to take action, whether to grab a snack to reduce hunger or enroll in college to earn a degree. The forces that lie beneath motivation can be biological, social, emotional or cognitive in nature. Researchers have developed a number of different theories to explain motivation. Each individual theory tends to be rather limited in scope. However, by looking at the key ideas behind each theory

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  • Porter Lawler Expectancy Theory of Work Motivation

    Porter Lawler Expectancy Theory of Work Motivation The job Description in question is a very senior person in the organisation. Hence, apart from monetary gains, he looks for other prominent sources of motivation as well. This Theory start with a premise that Motivation does not equal satisfaction or performance. Motivation, Satisfaction, and performance are all separate variables and relate in different ways. The Model states that the factors performance and satisfaction correspond to each other

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  • Motivation Theory

    MOTIVATION AND MOTIVATION THEORY  The term motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, meaning "to move." Motivation can be broadly defined as the forces acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of goal-directed, voluntary effort. Motivation theory is thus concerned with the processes that explain why and how human behavior is activated. The broad rubric of motivation and motivation theory is one of the most frequently studied and written-about

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  • Expectancy Theory

    The expectancy theory of motivation, which was first produced by Victor Vroom, has become a generally accepted theory for explaining how individuals make decisions concerning different behavioural alternatives. According to Vroom to motivate someone mere offer a person something to satisfy his important needs will not be adequate. In order for the person to be motivated, he must also be convincingly sure that he has the ability to obtain the reward. An employee’s motivation increases when he values

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  • Expectancy Theory

    within the company. Darden is working off of a framework of revised path – goal leadership. This model will ensure stability within the group development stage. Typically, this model suggests that leaders are effective due to positive impacts on motivation, performance and satisfaction (TEXTBOOK). There are four different styles for which a leader can connect with employees. All of these vary based on each individual employees style as long as the situation at hand. The first style is a directive

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  • Expectancy Theory

    Expectancy Theory Student name: Ho Yin Cheung Student No: N8703019 MGB200 Christine Crawford – Tutorial 9 6:00-7:00 Tuesday Words: 1932 Introduction Employers always want their employees work with the highest performance. In the real business world, Leaders have trying many methods to motivate colleagues do the job well. However, they may fail to motivate their colleagues by many reasons. The expectancy theory can predict the result of the motivation. In this essay, firstly, three components

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  • Motivation Theories

    performance is mainly determined by their motivation. The modern managerial approach is based on Elton Mayo motivation theory. His theory realized deficiencies in Taylorism and his scientific management and believed that employees are not concerned just with money, but they should be better motivated by having social needs which Taylors ignored. Companies therefore should offer stimulus in order to fulfill an employee’s needs and wants which in turn helps their motivation and increase productivity. Frederick

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  • Motivation Theories

    foundations and programs to study and promote market-based solutions to societal problems. They started out as a small business and got bigger over time, because they had the right techniques to work with their employees. Koch Industries developed some theories and practiced them into three main objectives. One of the objectives was that all employees had to have the same point of view about the company. Management made it clear to the entire team that everyone understood what their goal and the principles

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  • Motivation Theory

    2.0 A GOOD PERFORMER “Why is employee’s motivation important?” it is because in today’s economy recession, it is more important than ever to have better motivated employees. A motivated employee is a productive employee. A productive employee is a more profitable employee. When people are not motivated, they become less productive, less creative and which could make the company loss their assets. When an employee works hard and believes there will be some kind of reward and does not receive one

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  • Motivation Theories

    | Content | 2 | * Motivation (definition) * Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs | 3 | * Hierarchy of Needs triangle | 5 | * Characteristics and behaviors of self-actualized individuals table * McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y | 6 | * Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory | 7 | * Steps of motivating people (Herzberg) * McClelland’s Theory of needs | 8 | * Characteristics and Dominant Motivators table | 9 | * Steps for applying McClelland’s theory * Conclusion | 11 |

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  • Motivation Theories

    SOCIAL EXCHANGE AND EQUITY THEORY Social exchange and equity theory revolve around the balance between efforts and rewards in organizations. The individual-organization exchange relationship addresses the contributions and demands that each party makes in the relationship. A. Demands and Contributions 1. Demands Needs form the basis for the expectations or demands placed on organizations by individuals. Organizations express demands on individuals through job

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  • Vroom's Model of Expectancy Theory

    Vroom’s Model of Expectancy Theory Expectancy Theory is a mental form of motivation. It is based how employee makes their decisions and why they are motivated to perform the task. It identifies the motivational force behind the decision (Van Eerde & Thierry, 1996). Motivation is predetermined before an employee will complete an assignment (Kopp, 2014). The components that contribute an employee’s motivation are a positive link between their effort and performance; the performance leads to

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  • Expectancy Theory

    Expectancy Theory-Vroom and Turnover In Vroom’s expectancy theory (1964) “He believes that employee is motivated to exert high level of efforts when he believes that efforts will lead to good performance and therefore organizational rewards that will satisfy achievement of personal goals”(Kondalkar, 2007). Therefore if the employees think of the rewards that are offered are insufficient, there could be a possibility that they will not give their best performances and as a result their motivation

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  • Expectancy Theory

    Concepts For equity theory, people compare their pay, reward with others and see if they are fair or not. If a worker feels that the other people treat he/she equally with others, the worker might satisfy and does not change behavior, otherwise he/she will look for changing. The important thing is inequity, and it can be positive or negative. If positive, it might increase their motivation to work. if negative, they might not want to work hard. Then, the expectancy theory focuses on what people

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  • Expectancy Theory

    theoretical model ‘Expectancy Theory’ can be used to predict and diagnose the motivation of Middle Mangers, more specifically, Andrew, in working for the organisation; and the ramifications of these motivational reactions. In essence, by understanding the strength of desire for a particular outcome and the probability of achieving this, helps individuals to gain a subjective view of effort linked to outcome, to adjust motivation and behaviour towards work-related goals. Expectancy theory identifies three

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  • Expectancy Theory

    Theories of Motivation: Vroom’s Valence-Expectancy Theory If you were a manager, wouldn’t you like to know how your employees decide to work hard or goof off? Wouldn’t it be nice to know whether a planned rewards program will have the desired effect—namely, motivating them to perform better in their jobs? Wouldn’t it be helpful if you could measure the effect of bonuses on employee productivity? These are the issues considered by psychologist Victor Vroom in his expectancy theory, which proposes

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  • Motivation Theories

    Motivation Theories According to Hunt, Osborn, & Schermerhorn, (2008), look at the Content theories, which include Alderfer, Maslow, Herzberg, and McClelland; their theories depend on finding individual needs as well as to change his or her behavior. The Process theories look closely at the thought processes that affect the ability to make decisions. Maslow’s hierarchy need theories of motivation look at peoples needs as operational. Maslow uses a five-step hierarchy beginning at physiological

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  • Motivation Theories

    Routledge ^___^ S % _ _ ^ _ Taylor & Francis G K Compensation, esteem valence and job performance: an empirical assessment of Alderfer's ERG theory CA. Arnolds and Christo Boshoff Abstract Improving the job perfomiance of employees has been the focus of many motivation theories, especially the need theories. These theories have however been questioned because of a lack of research on the causal relationship between need satisfaction and job perfonnance. Research on the link

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  • Motivation Theories

    COMPARISON OF CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Maslow Self-Actualization – Highest need level. – Involves an individual's desire to realize full potential. – Can be satisfied without this level. ERG Growth – Desire for continued personal growth and development Herzberg Motivation Factors – Improving factors leads to satisfaction, effort, and performance. – Related to job content; what employees actually do. – Factors: (1) achievement (2) recognition (3) work itself (4) responsibility (5)

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  • Equity vs Expectancy Theory

    MGT302 Organizational behavior Assignment 1: Motivation Theory and Practice Analyze, compare, and contrast the two contemporary theories of motivation (a) equity theory and, (b) expectancy theory. Include in your discussion, an evaluation of each theory and the implications to managers in a global work environment. Your analysis should include identification of the strengths and weaknesses of each theory using scholarly references to defend your arguments. by Tassos Pericleous Student’s Number:

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  • Expectancy Theory of Motivation

    Expectancy Theory of Motivation Name Institution Expectancy Theory of Motivation Expectancy theory states that a person will choose to behave or act in a certain way because they are encouraged to choose a particular behavior over other alternative behaviors due to what they perceive the outcome of that behavior to be (DuBrin, 2009). When selecting among different behaviors, people choose from alternatives which provide high motivational force. This force is presented as; Motivational Force (MF)

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  • Theories of Motivation

    Theories of Motivation In the workforce today, there are many different viewpoints behind what motivates workers in their respective job functions. The work of Frederick Taylor, Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, and Frederick Herzberg have some of the most popular theories behind the motivation of workers and have been developed over the course of the past 100 years or so. However, it should be noted that all four of these respective theoretical approaches do not reach the same conclusions. The

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  • Motivation Theory

    Motivation How important is pay for motivating workers? Motivation Studies Findings: * Pay and benefits are important in encouraging staff to work well * most important: work enjoyment, work challenges and recognition Points to think about * why do you think that pay and bonuses are not the most important factor for all workers? * explain why “loyalty” and “working harder” are important to a business * why do you think “recognition” is important to many workers? is it

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  • Path Goal and Expectancy Theory

    Path-goal theory centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish selected goals. It emphasizes the relationship between the leaders’ style, the characteristics of the subordinates and the work setting. The leader should clarify the directions so subordinates know which way to go, remove obstacles that are stopping them and provide the rewards along the way. Leaders’ approach will depend on the situation, including the follower's capability and motivation, as well as the difficulty of

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  • Expectancy Theory of Motivation and George

    with his report. This relates to Effort to performance outcome of the expectancy theory which refers to an individual’s perception that his or her effort will result in a particular level of performance it falls between two extremes 1.0 and 0.0, 1.0 where they believe they can definitely finish the task or 0.0 where they believe even their best effort is not going to get the task done (McShane et. al 2015). George’s expectancy that his effort will lead to a specific level of performance is 0.0 he

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  • Motivation Theory

    literature review As pointed by Vroom [1964], motivation is derived from the Latin word “movere”, which means “to move”. It is an internal force, dependent on an individual’s needs which derive him/her to achieve. Shulze and Steyn [2003] affirmed that in order to understand people’s behavior at work, managers or supervisors must be aware of the concept of needs or motives, which will help ‘move’ their staffs to act. According to Robbins [2001], motivation is a need-satisfying process which means that

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  • Motivation Theories

    Motivation Theories PSY/230 – Theories of Personality: I Think, Therefore Who Am I? (Axia) Motivation Theories Although I found all of the theories related to motivation very interesting, I most agreed with the intimacy motive. I cannot say that I have ever been truly motivated by desires for achievement and power. I have, on the other hand, found myself being motivated to achieve the private life of interpersonal communion. I have always felt more driven to find bonds with family and friends

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  • Expectancy Theory

    employees. Expectancy Theory of Motivation The Expectancy Theory of Motivation is a theory first proposed by Victor Vroom of the Yale School of Management in 1964. It states that an employee’s motivation is a result of how much a person wants to be rewarded (valence), the probability that the effort results in the expected performance (expectancy) and the belief that their performance will result in the desired reward (instrumentality). Three components of Expectancy theory: Expectancy, Instrumentality

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  • Motivation Theory

    Motivation Theory There are many different populations on which the Motivation theory is used, but the one that stands out the most is students in the classroom. In today’s society there are more and more children dropping out of school because they are not interested or motivated enough to finish. Unfortunately, there is no single magical formula for motivating students. Many factors affect a given student's motivation to work and to learn (Bligh, 1971; Sass, 1989). Teachers in

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  • Motivation Theory

    Taylor Motivation By Who – Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1917) Frederick Winslow Taylor is a controversial figure in management history. His innovations in industrial engineering, particularly in time and motion studies, paid off in dramatic improvements in productivity. At the same time, he has been credited with destroying the soul of work, of dehumanizing factories, making men into automatons Mr. Taylor was born at Germantown, Philadelphia, on March 20, 1856, and was graduated from Stevens

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  • Theories of Motivation

    responsibly at all times and they seek to reduce the harm caused by their products and their environmental footprints. This report will show how a General Manager of a subsidiary company of BAT, particularly Solomon Islands Tobacco (SITCO), uses theories of motivation to motivate his staff to achieve these goals and objectives of the BAT Group. 2.0 How the Manager attracts and retains his employees to work with his organization A Manager must always be equipped with ways of how to attract and retain

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  • Theories of Motivation

    Chapter 5Theories of Motivation LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 1. Understand the role of motivation in determining employee performance. 2. Classify the basic needs of employees. 3. Describe how fairness perceptions are determined and consequences of these perceptions. 4. Understand the importance of rewards and punishments. 5. Apply motivation theories to analyze performance problems. What inspires employees to provide excellent service

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  • Theory of Motivation

    SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY Baguio City, Philippines In Partial Fulfillment For the Requirements in ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MY PERSONAL THEORY OF MOTIVATION Submitted By: JENNIFER B. LANUZA MS Psychology II Submitted To: MR. EDWARD MACALMA May 2, 2012 THE “AI (AKO ITO)” THEORY “Life has many great options, but you don’t have to pick always what seems to be the best, just pick whatever makes you really happy, and it will be the best and perfect choice” In this imperfect world, we aim for perfection

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  • Expectancy Theory of Motivation

    LET1 Task 317.1.1-06 Expectancy Theory of Motivation Western Governors University Effort verse reward. This is a common discussion among many business executives, teachers, military leaders and other individuals that are in a supervisory role. A frequent question that I’m sure is often asked of oneself being in a supervisory role is “What can I do to get the desired results that I want/need, or am being told to achieve; from the people I am directly responsible?” And to answer that question

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  • Motivation Theories

    ILeadership theories in project management In the project management arena each theory used can result in positive or negative results. The methods used depend a great amount on the project manager and how they like to run his or her projects. As stated earlier the democratic theory encourages participation if the project manager is unfamiliar with the type of project that will be executed using a democratic approach and the right team could assist him in understanding the situation better. That

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