Gender And Development

  • Gender and Development

    The Gender and Development approach is a method of determining how best to organize development projects and programs based on analysis of gender relationships. This approach was developed in the 1980s as an alternative to the Women in Development approach that was commonly in use ( This approach acknowledges that to address women’s concerns and needs, development assistance must take account of both women’s and men’s roles and responsibilities within the community and their

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  • Gender and Development

    Report No 55 Gender and Development: Concepts and Definitions Prepared for the Department for International Development (DFID) for its gender mainstreaming intranet resource by Hazel Reeves and Sally Baden February 2000 BRIDGE (development - gender) Institute of Development Studies University of Sussex Brighton BN1 9RE, UK Tel: +44 (0) 1273 606261 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 621202 Email: Website: © Institute of Development Studies ISBN 1 85864 381

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  • Gender

    Gender, Sexuality, and religious identity * Gender - what society expect male and female bodies to be doing (jobs, relationship, etc are appropriate) * Are culture with should nurture and men shouldn’t be very emotional * Sex is the biological features which distinctly separates males and females * In some cultures there are more than 2 sexes * In western cultures we like procreation * Sexuality – has do with your sex and gender and how you interact with others * Why

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  • Gender Terminology and Its Development

    1960’s that the term of “gender” was widely used in the academic literature and public discussion to differentiate the gender identity and biological sex. By definition, the term “biological sex”represents the true meaning of an individual sex status. Gender, on the other hand, has multiple interpretations between men, women and what comes in beetween through social development and “nurture” of cultural adoption. Money and Erhardt (1972) suggest that biological gender is what a person perceives

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  • Gender

    this question: 20 marks (a) Briefly describe one contribution that Darwin made to the development of psychology. (3 marks) [AO1 = 3, AO2 = 0] AO1 One mark for identification of a relevant contribution. Two marks for identification of a relevant contribution but may be a brief or slightly muddled description. Three marks for identification of a relevant contribution with explicit reference to the development of psychology. Likely answers: theory of evolution; role of heritability; genetics; evolutionary

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  • Gender and Development

    quoted by Wolf, 1985) “Human development, if not gendered, is endangered” (United Nations Human Development Report, 1995) “The undervaluation of women’s work lowers the real value of the national product, undermines women’s purchasing power, curtails their rights to own property and land and to acquire credit from financial institutions, and reduces their already low status” (Ngan-Ling Chow & Lyter, 2002) “The invisibility of masculinity reproduces gender inequality, both materially and

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  • Gender and Development

    Functions of the Department 1. Mobilizing the public and enlist its involvement in the fight against corruption 2. Educating and senstizing the public on the implications of corruption on development and social service delivery, and to observe integrity and ethical conduct 3. Development of National Values and Ethical Standards for public and private conduct, and civil society 4. Mainstreaming ethical values and standards in public service, private sector and civil society with

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  • Gender

    Gender gender is a range of physical, mental, and behavioral characteristics distinguishing between masculinity and femininity.[1][2][3] Depending on the context, the term may refer to sex (i.e. the state of being male or female), social roles (as in gender roles), or gender identity.[1][2][3][4] Gender studies is a branch of the social sciences. Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955. Before his work, it was uncommon

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  • Gender

    Langford, W. (1997), “But he said he loved me” in “GENDER” (Jackson et al 2004) is the writing I will review in this section. Langford’s (Jackson et al 2004) study “But he said he loved me” was formulated with findings from fifteen in-depth interviews of women who are in a relationships. Langford argued that in the beginning of a relationship men are supportive and caring towards their partners but as the relationship progresses and gets older with the passage of time, men begin to distance themselves

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  • What Is the Role of Women in Fostering Development? Discuss the Influence of Gender on Household Expenditure, Human Capital and Policymaking.

    What is the role of women in fostering development? Discuss the influence of gender on household expenditure, human capital and policymaking. (word limit : 1500) Women paly an immense role in development, be it physical, moral or emotional development. Their role in eradicating hunger and poverty and development and current challenges is becoming very crucial (EGM, 2011) as is evident from the 56th session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) in 2012, who prioritized their theme on

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  • Gender and Development

    Report No 55 Gender and Development: Concepts and Definitions Prepared for the Department for International Development (DFID) for its gender mainstreaming intranet resource by Hazel Reeves and Sally Baden February 2000 BRIDGE (development - gender) Institute of Development Studies University of Sussex Brighton BN1 9RE, UK Tel: +44 (0) 1273 606261 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 621202 Email: Website: © Institute of Development Studies ISBN 1 85864 381

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  • Gender and Development

    ATHROPOLOGY OF GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT [HANTH 107] INTRODUCTION Defining Key Concepts Gender is not about women as most people think. Gender is about both men and women. Gender is a set of characteristics distinguishing between male and female, and is a result socio – cultural construction, it describes the characteristics that a society or culture delineates as masculine or feminine. Thus the term gender has social, cultural and attitudinal connotations. Gender is a set of characteristics distinguishing

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  • Gender

    Self-concept is a person’s understanding of who he or she is in terms of personality ,appearance, personal traits e.g. gender and size. Self-esteem refers to person’s evaluation of his or her own worth ,either in specifics such as intelligence ,attractiveness etc. Unrealistic high levels of esteem may decline or lower achievement and at times lead to aggression at various levels of development. At school extracurricular activities has been seen to promote realistic self-esteem while friendship improves

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  • Gender

    Gender Identity Every sexual thought, attraction,preference, development, feeling, memory, fantasy, and choice stem from complex brain activity. A complex genetic code determines body type; but that type does not always dictate sexual identity. Sexual identity is an even more complex development that encompasses hormone levels, social learning, individual perception, and attraction. Humans are born genetically male or female; but that does not necessarily control which sexual identity the individual

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  • Gender

    Unit 3: Gender Scavenger Hunt EDP 310: Gender Development 1) 1) Interview 4-5 females and 4-5 males (they can be friends or strangers). Ask each of them to think of adjectives that describe/symbolize men, and adjectives that describe/symbolize women. For each person you interview, list the first 4 words they think of for each gender. Keep a running list of the words (even if words are used multiple times). Bad language can be an issue here. If you feel uncomfortable with certain words

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  • Gender Development

    Gender equality and equity are useful aspects in the development of communities. The importance of gender equality is underscored by its inclusion and recognised globally as one of the eight Millennium Development Goals. In this writing the writer would first define terms gender equality and equity. The writer is going to dwell much on issues like income generating projects, education, health services, politics, family issues, and religion which are some of the useful aspects that promotes community

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  • Education and Gender Equality Within Millennium Development Goals

    Education and Gender Equality within Millennium Development Goals: KSA & China Name: Institution: Course: Date: Declaration I hereby declare that this is my work and nothing has been plagiarized. Every aspect of this work has been appropriately referenced using the APA referencing format. Executive Summary Table of Contents Contents of the report with page numbers, list of tables, and list of figures. Introduction to the Research Topic Education

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  • Gender and Development Theories, Wid, Wad and Gad, Their Strengths and Weaknesse

    Theories of Development-Empowerment a)WID,b)WAD,c)GAD Ever since the formation of the United Nations Commission on the Status for Women in 1946, it had been proposing a U. N. Women’s Conference with little success. Gradually with pressure from the American Women‟s Movement, the U.N. General Assembly declared 1975 as the International Women’s Year and 1975-1985 as the International Decade for Women. This declaration led to a growing awareness of women‟s issues and an acceptance of their demands

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  • Gender

    Gender Identity Paper Rechelle Stevenson PSY/340 Annie Powers 4-27-2014 In the research paper the reader will learn the meaning of gender identity and how hormones and behavior interact with each other. Also how hormones and behavior affect the determination of gender identity. Included will be the roles of biological factors. This paper will determine which has greater influence on gender identity nature or nurture. Gender identity is the acceptance of ones membership into a certain group

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  • Discuss the Role of Hormones and/or Genes in Gender Development

    Discuss the role of hormones and/or genes in gender development. (8 + 16 marks) Biological sex is determined by genes, which are on chromosomes. Humans generally have 23 pairs of chromosomes, one pair of which determines sex. Females have an XX pair while males have an XY pair. Chromosomal sex largely controls how masculine or feminine the egg's development will be. Chromosomal sex controls whether an embryo will develop ovaries or testes. The SRY gene on the Y chromosome which only males

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  • Gender Development

    Nature vs. Nurture in Gender Development The interest in the Interaction between hormones and behavior is not new there has long been a question of whether an individual is born with a specific identity or whether they are nurtured or pushed into a certain role, and how well they can adapt to and assimilate into a specific gender. First it is important to understand that gender is complicated and consists primarily of of three elements. The Gender role, this is the assumption of behavioral

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  • Gender

    Name: Serene A/P Balasubramaniam (AEP130010) Siti Fatinah Binti Hassan (AEP130012) Course: AZEA 11Gender and Development Lecturer: Dr. Welyne Jeffrey Jehom Assignment Globalization has brought about both positive and negative impact for women in developing countries. Globalization has made it possible for a French company to set up a factory and Malaysia and provide jobs for local women. But how this changed the local dynamics? Examine the impact of globalization

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  • Brain Development, Gender and Iq in Children: a Volumetric Imaging Study

    Running Head: BRAIN DEVELOPMENT, GENDER, AND IQ Brain development, gender and IQ in children: A volumetric imaging study National University Understanding Young Children: Cognition and the Growing Child In partial fulfillment of ECE 652 Assignment 2.1 Dr. Brenda Sheppard-Johnson April 2010 Brain development, gender and IQ in children: A volumetric imaging study Recap The quantitative study conducted by Reiss, Abrams, Singer

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  • Gender

    Gender Identity Frank Sagasta August 31, 2014 Psychology 265 Dr. David Mohr Abstract I will discuss the path of gender identity and the reviews of what certain people believe. You will see the three different influences of gender identity. These are the three areas of gender identity: anatomy of the genitals, relationship of child to parent, and biological. In addition to physical abnormalities due to genetic and hormonal influences or environmental influences. Something, interesting

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  • Describe and Evaluate the Gender Schema Theory of Gender Development

    Describe and evaluate the gender schema theory of gender development. Martin and Halverson believe that gender identity is gained around the age two-three. They also stated that when children realise that they are either a boy or girl they split themselves into two groups, their gender group being the ‘in-group’ and the opposite sex group is the ‘out-group’. The children then actively seek out how members of their group should behave (toys, games, activities) and ignore those that do not relate

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  • Discuss Kohlberg’s Theory of Gender Development.

    Discuss Kohlberg’s theory of gender development. (8 marks + 16 marks) June 2013 Kohlberg’s theory on gender development offers a cognitive approach. He proposes that a child’s understanding of gender comprises of three stages. He believes that it is only when the child has developed a full understanding of gender at about 6-7 years of age that they will begin to display gender appropriate behaviour. The first stage of the Gender Constancy theory is the gender labelling stage (2-3 years of

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  • Gender

    “Most people in Western cultures grow up learning that there are two and only two sexes, male and female, and two and only two genders, feminine and masculine” (Spade and Valentine – 3). For most cultures all around the world, this is their case. People have grown up learning strictly about these distinctions; people are labeled as male or female according to the sexual organs they were born with and must identify as feminine or masculine with their looks, without there being an in between or even

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  • Gender

    Gender What is male? What is female? The answers to these questions may depend on the types of gender roles one was exposed to as a child. Gender roles can be defined as the behaviors and attitudes expected of male and female members of a society by that society. Gender roles vary. Different cultures impose different expectations upon the men and women who live in that culture. The United States has experienced tremendous upheaval and revising of its traditional gender roles in the last generation

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  • Gender and Development Essay

    Papers S65 no pic Shailaja Gender and Development Essay Yelden Sarybay Uploaded by Yelden Sarybay top 2%416 Info Bookmark Download DOCX Report Work that may take a diversity of pathways, but for which there are rarely the kind of short-cuts envisaged by the proponents of empowerment- lite.” (Harcourt, 2009) Conclusion Effective of not, Kazakhstan‟s most marginalized are simply not affected by the discussion. “This is a debate about gender and power, about body politics

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  • Gender

    * The word Gender, as a grammatical term has been around since the 14th century, according to Oxford dictionary as “referring to classes of noun designated as masculine, feminine, or neuter.” Gender is more commonly used now in the 21st century to describe a person’s identity. Sex is another word that is commonly used when describing gender, it is ‘the state of being male or female’. Sex is the biological difference, where as gender is to cultural or social differences. Sex could also be defined

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  • Gender and Development

    ANTH 2001: Gender and Development. Department of Anthropology University of Witwatersrand ESSAY TWO – DUE 21st OCTOBER 2011 Write an essay on one of the following questions, using the reading material in your reading pack and, where possible, other research and readings that you discover independently. The essays should be typed and between 2,000 - 2,500 words long, at 1.5 spacing and margins of at least 2.5 cm all around. Please number pages and ensure that your NAME and STUDENT NUMBER

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  • Discuss the Roles of Genes and Hormones in Gender Development

    Outline and evaluate the role of genes and/or hormones in gender development (8 + 16 marks) AO1 – Outline of the the role of genes and hormones in gender development Biological sex is determined by genes, which are on chromosomes. Humans generally have 23 pairs of chromosomes, one pair of which determines sex. Females have an XX pair while males have an XY pair. Chromosomal sex largely controls how masculine or feminine the egg's development will be. Chromosomal sex controls whether an embryo

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  • Gender and Development

    by the laws of compensation. Unions and the employees push for the more compensation in terms of definition of what should be compensated and how. This is in regard of the employee in question, the job they do, the salary or wage they earn and the gender, race or any other affiliation they are associated with. In the long run, a research has shown that, unions end up pushing for compensation of both unionized and non-unionized workers in the respective state (Mishel, 2003) The government offers a

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  • Gender Empowerment and Development

    M. Rathgeber* International Development Research Centre Ottawa * The views expressed here are those of the author and This paper was do not necessarily reflect those of IDRC. originally presented at the meetings of the Canadian Institute for the Advancement of Women held in Quebec City, November 1988. 2 During the past few years, the term "women in development" has become common currency both inside and outside academic settings. But while "women in development" or "WID", is understood integration

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  • Gender

    United Nations Development Programme SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY ELIMINATION DIVISION WP 5 GENDER AND POVERTY* Nilüfer Cagatay May 1998 WORKING PAPER SERIES *The responsibility for opinions in these articles, studies and other contributions in this series rests solely with their authors, and publication does not constitute an endorsement by the United Nations Development Programme or the institutions of the United Nations system. Table Of Contents Introduction I. Women

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  • Gender

    1. Gender refers to the socially learned attitudes and behaviors associated with biological differences. Gender determines the expression of masculinity and femininity. People reinforce those gender expressions through social interaction. Social and culture shape gender roles and what is considered appropriate behavior for a “man” and “women”. For example, men are expected to be a leader and protector for family while women focus on home such as taking care of the house, cooking, raising children

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  • Gender

    Gender and Sexuality: Each of us has a biological sex, whether we are female, male, or intersex. Our gender is our social and legal status as men or women. And sexual orientation is the term used to describe whether a person feels sexual desire for people of the other gender, same gender, or both genders. Each of us has a gender and gender identity. Our gender identity is our deepest feelings about our gender. We express our gender identity in the way that we act masculine, feminine, neither, or

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  • Evolutionary Theories of Gender Development

    Outline and evaluate one or more evolutionary explanations for gender (4+16) One evolutionary theory of gender is mate selection. This claims gender role behaviours are related to ensuring the survival of ones genes. It states men have evolved a greater desire to have causal sex in order to produce as many offspring as possible to pass on their genes. Men look for specific features in women to ensure they can reproduce and have healthy offspring, for an example, it would be considered attractive

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  • Gender Development

    Explanation Cognitive Development Theory was founded by one of the most influential researchers of the 20th century, Jean Paiget (A&M p. 3). Piaget was concerned with how we come to know and how children thought. Due to Piaget’s biology background, Piaget “was interested in how an organism adapts to its environment” (A&M p.3). Paget’s main hypothesis was that infants were born with reflex schemes and then as they aged, constructed schemes took place of the reflex. Piaget also noted, “Children

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  • Outline and Evaluate the Role of Genes and Hormones in Gender Development (24 Marks).

    Outline and evaluate the role of genes and hormones in gender development (24 marks). The biological approach of gender development believes that an individual’s gender is decided at the same time that their sex is decided. An individual’s gender is influenced by their chromosomes and hormones. The pair of sex chromosomes dictates whether the foetus will be male or female. The female chromosome pair is XX and the male chromosome pair is XY. At about 6 weeks, the Y chromosome develops the gonads

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  • Gender

    use which argues that its actions were “reasonable” based on some factor other than age. 2. Religion as a BFOQ is justified in the case of religious organizations or societies that require employees to share their particular religion. 3. Gender as a BFOQ is allowed for positions requiring specific physical characteristics necessarily possessed by one sex. 4. National Origin as a BFOQ – A person’s national origin may be a BFOQ. C. Business Necessity - Business necessity is a defense

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  • Gender

    Linkages Between Gender, Development, and Growth: Implications for the Caribbean Region Stephanie Seguino Professor, Department of Economics Old Mill 340 University of Vermont Burlington, VT 05401 Tel. 1 802 656-0187 Fax 1 802 656-8405 Email July 2008 Acknowledgements: I am grateful for helpful comments and insights from Rhoda Reddock, Christine Barrow, Caren Grown, three anonymous referees, and participants at the Building Capacity for Gender Analysis in Policy

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  • Gender and Development Theories, Wid, Wad and Gad, Their Strengths and Weaknesse

    (Ms) Course: Gender and Development (HSO 306) Question: Briefly discuss the following theories and show the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to Gender Development; WID, WAD and GAD. Gender relates to the social constructions and relations between men and women and it does not simply look at maleness or femaleness. Development is a multidimensional concept but in general it entails social upward mobility and empowerment but not limited to this. In studying gender relations and development

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  • The Development of Gender Equality

    Ziding Wang The development of gender equality 1. Introduction Over the past decades, the relationships between women and men and their lives have dramatically changed. In many parts of the world, women still have fewer rights including poor level of education, less income that men and less power of decision making. Unfortunately, this is true, despite the fact that women’s role in children upbringing, food producing and family income is inestimable. Gender equality is not only

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  • Gender

    STRATEGIES FOR PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY How can we increase the likelihood of women benefiting equally from development activities? What strategies have proven to be effective in the field? This tipsheet summarises strategies which have worked in practice, based on findings from a review of 85 evaluations undertaken by bilateral and multilateral agencies from 1999 to 2002. There was a great deal of consistency in evaluation reports about the most effective strategies for addressing gender equality issues

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  • Gender Equality and Socio-Economic Development

    Gender equality and socio-economic development Let’s consider this problem in the global scale. According to the United Nation statistics, women and girls continue to suffer discrimination and violence in every part of the world. But if we think, why is society concerning about it? Maybe it would be better to accept the traditional patriarchal system, which exists in many families? Maybe men are more successful in some activities, so it doesn’t make sense to share these activities with women

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  • Gender and Development Theories, Wid, Wad and Gad, Their Strengths and Weaknesse

    ON GENDER DEVELOPMENT March 19, 2013 · by cn2collins · Bookmark the permalink. · Over the years development programs have been criticized for ignoring gender roles and the impact it has on women in the global south. However we see a shift to integrate women into development programs in hopes of eradicating poverty and low social economical status. The six main theoretical approaches are: “(1) the welfare approach; (2) women in development (WID); (3) women and development (WAD); (4) gender and

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  • Gender

    FROM WID TO GAD: CONCEPTUAL SHIFTS IN THE WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT DISCOURSE Abstract The Fourth World Conference on Women, to be held in Beijing in September 1995, provides an opportunity for the world community to focus attention on areas of critical concern for women worldwide concerns that stem from social problems embracing both men and women, and that require solutions affecting both genders. One of the main objectives of the Conference is to adopt a platform for action, concentrating on

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  • Gender Development

    Theories of Gender Development Sam Mathews Freud’s Work: 1. Psychoanalytic perspective has viewed gender, sex, and sexuality in an essentialist light 2. Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective has been “popularized” and has become part of our social consciousness 3. Structuralist—mind has an inherent structure (id, ego, superego; unconscious, preconscious, conscious) 4. “Instincts” drive our personalities—life/sexual and death/aggressive 5. Psychosexual stages “track” our development

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  • What Is Gender and Development?

    meanings of gender and shows the heated debate among scholars and substantiates how elusive these concepts are in development discourses. In the 1970s the word gender became a buzzword both in development discourse and policy making. The feminist movement challenged the existing theories of development which neglected women and excluded women in the mainstream development. It is in this backdrop that women like Boserup (1970) championed or spearheaded the women in development approach

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